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Contact Information (School Year 2017-18)

District Contact Information (School Year 2017-18)
District Name

Lemoore Union High

Phone Number

(559) 924-6610


Debbie Muro

E-mail Address

Web Site

School Contact Information (School Year 2017-18)
School Name

Jamison (Donald C.) High (Continuation)


351 East Bush St.

City, State, Zip

Lemoore, Ca, 93245-3601

Phone Number



Sandi Lowe, Principal

E-mail Address

Web Site

County-District-School (CDS) Code


Last updated: 11/28/2017

School Description and Mission Statement (School Year 2017-18)

Jamison High School (JHS) is the continuation high school of the Lemoore Union High School District.  It is located just east of Lemoore Union High School.  JHS serves a population of approximately 80 students in grades eleven through twelve, from a wide geographic area incorporating the communities of Lemoore, Stratford, Santa Rosa Rancheria Indian Reservation, the Island District, and the Lemoore Naval Air Station.
JHS is named in honor of Donald C. Jamison, the first principal and pioneer of continuation education in our school district. Mr. Jamison
was principal of the former South Lemoore High School from 1974 until his retirement in 1983.  It is said that Mr. Jamison was a fierce defender and advocate of “his kids” at South High and that he was committed to providing the guidance and nurturing that would ensure the success of each of his students, his philosophy of supporting students continues today at Jamison High School.
JHS was first accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) in the spring of 2006 and re-accredited in the Spring of 2009.  Being WASC accredited affords our students with many more opportunities after graduation.  Students will now have the opportunity to qualify for financial aide, enlist in the Military and attend four year colleges. 
Students are initially referred to JHS from the Student Discipline Review Board (SDRB) for a variety of reasons, including credit deficiencies, behavior and attendance problems, and also for students who volunteer to attend JHS due to seeking a smaller learning environment.  Students who are deemed “at risk” of not graduating are referred by their school counselor only when all possible supports have been utilized and exhausted at the students traditional school.  JHS is dedicated to providing personalized instruction for all students.
JHS strives to provide students with an alternate educational opportunity.  Small class sizes and a holistic approach to student learning provide students with a support system to facilitate student success.  Students at JHS have typically struggled with the traditional setting of a large traditional high school.  They see greater success in the flexibility and supportive program provided in an alternative setting.  It is because of this approach that a number of students who enroll at JHS do so on a voluntary basis.  Further, students who are eligible to return to the traditional comprehensive high school, elect to remain at JHS.  The staff at JHS feels these two phenomena are indicative of the quality education and of a staff who values students.

The school year is divided into three twelve-week trimesters.  The school day consists of six 60 minute periods.  The twelve-week trimester
system works well for the students because they can see their educational goals being met at a faster rate.  The longer periods allows the teachers to implement hands on project based assignments that correlate to the state standards and the opportunity during the period to re-teach the concepts when needed.  The majority of our students are full day students, while others have a modified schedule based on student needs.  The teacher to student ratio is 1 teacher to approximately 13 students.  The smaller number of students per class provides the opportunity for teachers to get to know the students which in turn build a strong working relationship in the classroom. A small student to staff ratio also provides students with the necessary attention for success.
The curriculum at JHS is designed around the Common Core State standards and the California High School Exit Exam. Teachers post and
explain the objective of the day. The staff ensures that all students will be able to meet school wide expectations by adapting lessons which embrace the varying learning modalities of our students. Such variety in lessons gives auditory learners, visual learners, and kinesthetic learners the opportunity to experience a rigorous standards based curriculum while not feeling overwhelmed by the academic process.  The districts technology department provides administration and staff with access to concise student achievement data reports such as results from SBAC, grades and summative assessments.  JHS uses this student achievement data in a timely manner to initiate and revise lesson plans, pacing guides and the
master schedule that focus on all students achieving the expected school-wide learning results and academic standards.
JHS students are offered a variety of curriculum to meet their graduation requirements.  In order to graduate, students must successfully complete 220 credits in the required and elective courses, complete 40 hours of community service, and pass the Senior Exit Interview.  Along with the core curriculum JHS offers a variety of elective classes such as Criminal Law, Forensics, Computers, Art History and also a graphic design/leadership class called Jamison Enterprises.  Jamison Enterprises allows the students to learn how to design and market t-shirts, and silkscreen for organizations in the community. 
JHS appreciates the technological demands that will be placed upon students exiting high school.  In order to prepare students for such demands, each classroom is equipped with internet capable computers where students learn internet research skills needed to complete class assignments.  There are two on campus computer labs that are capable of servicing twenty students each.  Every classroom is equipped with an LCD projector, SMART Board, document camera and clickers.  All classrooms have either laptops or chromebooks available on a one to one ratio to students.  
JHS is dedicated to providing a quality education to all students resulting in a High School Diploma, adequate preparation for the students’ individual post high school goals and preparation to be a responsible citizen.
Sandi Lowe, Principal


The mission of JHS is to provide a quality education for students needing an alternative to a traditional high school setting. JHS fosters the philosophy that all students can learn in an environment where they are valued and given differentiated instruction. The staff at JHS is committed to preparing and supporting students to earn a high school diploma, compete in a competitive job market, and become productive and ethical members of their communities.

JHS strives to become an innovator for continuation schools by providing students with a research based education to produce graduates with the academic, technological, and social skills to become integral parts of society.

Quality education is the result of motivated students, well-prepared staff members, supportive parents and engaged citizens. The following beliefs, values,
and commitments provide the cornerstone for delivering a quality education to each and every student.

We believe all students have a fresh start upon enrollment.
We believe each student can learn and reach his/her highest potential.
We believe staff makes a difference, ensuring all students can get back on TRACK in a safe and quality learning environment.
We believe each student is unique and we must maintain clear and high expectations for all learning modalities.
We believe in a partnership with the community and instill a life-long commitment to community service.

We value the input of parents, students, staff, and the community in the decision making process.
We value the uniqueness of each student and the talents they bring with them.
We value rigor and relevance in both the instruction and assessment of our students.
We value respect for and accountability from all members of our community.

We are committed to preparing our students for the “Next Step.”
We are committed to providing the structure needed for successful learning in and outside the classroom.
We are committed to providing our students the experience and connections necessary to become responsible members of society.
We are committed to continuous improvements and constant evaluation to maximize our students’ performance.

Last updated: 11/28/2017

Student Enrollment by Grade Level (School Year 2016-17)

Grade Level Number of Students
Grade 11 24
Grade 12 62
Total Enrollment 86

Last updated: 11/28/2017

Student Enrollment by Student Group (School Year 2016-17)

Student Group Percent of Total Enrollment
Black or African American 9.3 %
American Indian or Alaska Native 12.8 %
Asian 0.0 %
Filipino 0.0 %
Hispanic or Latino 62.8 %
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.0 %
White 12.8 %
Two or More Races 1.2 %
Other 1.1 %
Student Group (Other) Percent of Total Enrollment
Socioeconomically Disadvantaged 75.6 %
English Learners 19.8 %
Students with Disabilities 5.8 %
Foster Youth 3.5 %

Last updated: 11/28/2017

Jamison High School
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Jamison High School

  • Home
  • Our School
    • Deputy Principal’s Message
    • Facilities
    • Annual School Report
    • History
    • Policies
  • Teaching  Learning
    • Curriculum
      • CAPA
      • English
      • Social Sciences
      • History
      • Design and Digital Technologies
      • Industrial Arts
      • Maths
      • PD/H/PE
      • Science
      • Language
    • Assessment Reporting
    • Academic Achievement / Growth
    • Learning Extension
    • Careers  Transition
    • Study Skills
    • Library
    • BYOD
  • Student Life
    • Meet our students
    • Student Leadership
      • U-Matter
      • Special needs support
      • Supporting families
      • Counselling
      • Student Health  Safety
      • Building Positive Relationships
    • Student Wellbeing
    • Sport
    • Creative Arts
    • Houses
  • Enrolment
    • Enrolment Policy
    • Transport
    • Uniform Shop
  • Uniform Shop
  • Our Community
    • PC Association
    • Action Team Partnerships
    • Parent/Guardian Information
      • Letters and Notes
      • Student Absences
      • Transport
      • Exam Timetables
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      • Bell Times
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Home > Our Community > Parent/Guardian Information > Exam Timetables

Exam Timetables




Nepean Zone Year 7 Gala Day
@ Jamison Park Penrith

Nepean Zone Year 7 Gala Day
@ Jamison Park Penrith

Aug 28 all-day
Nepean Zone Year 7 Gala Day All Year 7 students have been invited to represent Jamison High School at the Nepean Zone Gala Day. The day is designed to increase teamwork and social interaction between Year 7 students and aligns … read more

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Jamison High School

32 minutes ago

Jamison High School
Year 11 students Stephanie and Brock were honoured to attend a Young Leaders initiative today at NSW Parliament House. Many distinguished guests addressed the forum including The Premier of NSW, Gladys Berejiklian, Chef, Luke Mangan, Matilda, Amy Harrison, CEO of Spotify Jane Huxley, CEO of Deloitte Richard Deutsch. The day provided students with valuable life lessons to follow their dreams, give back to community and to develop resilience.Image attachment

Year 11 students Stephanie and Brock were honoured to attend a Young Leaders initiative today at NSW Parliament House. Many distinguished guests addressed the forum including The Premier of NSW, Gladys Berejiklian, Chef, Luke Mangan, Matilda, Amy Harrison, CEO of Spotify Jane Huxley, CEO of Deloitte Richard Deutsch. The day provided students with valuable life lessons to follow their dreams, give back to community and to develop resilience. See MoreSee Less

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Jamison High School

3 hours ago

Jamison High School

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  • This is a B Week
#jamo #jamisonhighschool
  • 2018 Ski Trip
#skitrip #jamisonhighschool #jamo
  • 2018 Ski Trip
#skitrip #jamo #jamisonhighschool
  • Year 7 / 8 Netball TAFE Finals
#netball #jamisonhighschool #jamo
  • JASR Mentoring Bottle Rockets
#jasr #jamo #jamisonhighschool
  • A big congratulations to the Year 7/8 girls netball team. They represented the school in an outstanding manner today at the TAFE NSW Metro Finals Netball Gala Day. In the face of some tough opposition all of these girls displayed exemplary sportsmanship. Very proud of all of your efforts today girls. Well done!
#netball #jamo #jamisonhighschool
  • Amazing day for STEM well done to all the students who designed and built bottle rockets today. Tomorrow is going to be a blast with the next engineers and designers of Penrith South Public School.
#stem #jamisonhighschool #jamo
  • First two Industrial Technology Timber Major Projects completed, displaying outstanding quality and skills.
#timber #jamisonhighschool #jamo


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© 2018 Jamison High School. All rights reserved.
Website by Firefly


222 Evan St
South Penrith 2750

4731 6150

lagere school klerken


Wie ben ik - deel3 cdt38ruis.jpg

��� Inhoudlaatst bijgewerkt op: 12/08/18 7:39 ����
Printen = 20 blz A4


Deze pagina probeert inzicht te bieden in de
periode 1946-2002, waarin Belgi� troepen had in West-Duitsland, in de BSD (zone
van de Belgische Strijdkrachten in Duitsland).
Gezien ons tienjarig verblijf in die BSD (1968-1978) denken we een bondig
overzicht te kunnen geven van hoe het er in die BSD aan toe ging.

Het ligt niet in onze bedoeling onszelf hier te promoten. Onze familienaam werd
daarom op alle pagina�s vermeden en op alle bijlagen gewist.

De pagina is in hoofdzaak bedoeld als naslagwerk voor onszelf en onze familie,
maar kan door iedereen gelezen worden


Scrol door de pagina��� of klik hieronder om direct te springen naar:


Bezetting van Duitsland

bezettingssector ANIMATIE


Ontstaan BRD (Bundes Republik

Ontstaan NATO

Ontstaan DDR

Einde bezettingsstatuut en
overgang naar Stationeringstrijdkrachten

Ontstaan Warschaupact

Opstelling NAVO-corpsen
in de jaren tachtig

Einde koude oorlog
Als militair met familie in Duitsland

Plaatsen waar wij in Duitsland

Leven en
werken als vrouw van een militair in de BSD in de jaren 1960-1970

Boeken over het
bezettingsleger en de BSD

Toenmalige militaire gedragcode

Symboliek der wapens (diverse

Graden bij de Landmacht tot 1999
Graden bij de Landcomponent na 1999
Video reportages

Tenues van toen

Link naar websites van ex BSD
eenheden en belevenissen ex-Siegenaars


Bezetting van Duitsland:



WOII tijdens de laatste oorlogsmaanden. De Amerikanen willen Kassel en
Frankfurt. Frankrijk wil ook Aken en doorstoten tot over de Rijn, maar de
Amerikanen die Aken reeds op 21 oktober 1944 en Keulen op 7 maart 1945 in
handen hebben, gaan daar niet mee akkoord.
Ze nemen Frankfurt in op 29 maart en Kassel op 4 april 1945.

De Britten willen Keulen in hun sector en krijgen dat bij de Amerikanen
geregeld vooraleer de Fransen het in handen kunnen krijgen.


Er ligt geen enkele grote Duitse stad in de Franse zone. Frankrijk krijgt
het intact gebleven Baden-Baden pas na teruggave van Karlsruhe en Stuttgart aan
de Amerikanen.

TERLOOPS: De Fransen hadden einde mei tot begin juni 1940 de aftocht
van de Britten en Belgen vanuit Duinkerke naar Engeland gedekt en voelden zich
achteraf in de steek gelaten en bij de indeling in bezettingssectoren in
Duitsland kregen ze in 1945 ook niet wat ze wensten.De Franse generaal Charles
de Gaule die later (in 1959) president van Frankrijk wordt, zal in 1966 de
aftocht van de NATO-troepen uit Frankrijk eisen, tenzij ze zich er onder Frans
bevel plaatsen. In juli 1966 verhuizen de hoofdkwartieren: SHAPE naar Casteau bij Mons (B), EUCOM naar Stuttgart (D), AFCENT naar
Brunsum (Nl) en 30.000 NATO-soldaten verlaten Frankrijk. Frankrijk maakte
tussen 1966 en 1996 geen deel meer uit van de militaire organen van de
NATO maar is sinds 2009 terug volwaardig lid.


8 mei 1945:  Nazi Duitsland capituleert onvoorwaardelijk.


De behandeling van Duitsland wordt na de oorlog besproken door de Europese
Adviescommissie waarin oorspronkelijk de ambassadeurs uit de Sovjet-Unie, VS en
UK zetelden. Later komt ook Frankrijk er nog bij.
In die commissie wordt afgesproken dat alleen de bezettingszones van de
Sovjet-Unie, VS en UK aan de demarcatielijn (ijzeren gordijn) mogen grenzen.


Op 21 juni 45 nemen de vier grootmachten de definitief overeengekomen
bezettingszones in. Aan de Belgen is op dat moment nog geen eigen
bezettingssector toegekend, die zal er pas later komen, als ondersector in de
Britse zone.



Amerikanen en Britten trekken zich daarop terug uit de Russische zone op
voorwaarde dat de toegang tot Berlijn (door de vier grootmachten bezet)
ongehinderd in de Russische zone mogelijk blijft.


De overwinnaars zijn uiteindelijk de Amerikanen, Britten, Fransen
en Russen. De kleine continentale landen hebben in de ogen van de
geallieerde grootmachten te weinig weerstand geboden.
Ze krijgen niets te
zeggen inzake zones van bezetting in Duitsland.

Belgi�, Nederland en Luxemburg proberen daarom het idee van een
BENELUX-sector te lanceren.


De Britten stellen voor in elke bezettingszone van de 4 grootmachten
zogenaamde ‘auxiliary contingents’ zoals Belgi�, Nederland en Luxemburg, op te
nemen. Dat valt echter niet in goede aarde bij de Russen.De Britten willen echter hulp in hun
sector omdat ze zelf niet over voldoende effectieven beschikken. Bovendien
vrezen de Britten dat de Amerikanen niet lang in Duitsland zullen blijven en
dat dan nog een grotere sector door De Britten en de Fransen zal moeten bezet
worden. De Russen geven tenslotte toe maar de kleine landen mogen enkel
HULP bieden, zonder medezeggenschap.
De kleine landen zullen dus onder het bevel staan
van een grootmacht.


Nederland zou wel willen deelnemen aan de bezetting, maar ingevolge
een tekort aan effectieven door de gebeurtenissen in Nederlands Indi�
(Indonesi� dat zich op 17 augustus 1945 onafhankelijk verklaarde) en wegens
tekort aan financi�le middelen, kon Nederland uiteindelijk niet deelnemen aan
de bezetting.

TERLOOPS: Op vraag van de NATO zal Nederland vanaf
1960, tijdens de Koude Oorlog, wel stationeringstrijdkrachten in het
noorden van de Bondsrepubliek ter beschikking stellen, ter verdediging van
West-Europa tegen het Warschaupact.
Alles begint met de 41e Lichte Brigade (die in 1962 de 41e
Pantser Brigade wordt) en die gekazerneerd wordt in H�ne, Fallingbostel en
Seedorf;de brigade maakt deel uit van
de 4e Divisie van het 1e Nederlandse Legerkorps; de getalsterkte
in Duitsland groeit later uit tot 40.000 Nederlandse militairen. Lees er
hier meer over.

Video Nederlandse strijdkrachten in Duitsland tijdens de Koude
Oorlog De reportage duurt 26 minuten
(reclame in het begin even laten

U heeft daartoe
mogelijk �silverlight� op uw PC nodig, download:


Reeds in juli 1944 verklaarde Frankrijk dat zijn natuurlijke grens de Rijn is.
Frankrijk wil ook het stukje Duitsland van aan de Belgische grens tot de Rijn.
Dat zorgt voor nervositeit in Belgi�. De Belgen en de Britten beschouwen dat
gebied zeer geschikt voor bezetting door Belgi�.


In Engeland, in
Tenby (Wales),
in 1943 de zogenaamde Belgische �Brigade Piron� gevormd.

tenby jpg.jpg

piron jpg.jpg

Brigade Piron

brigade gif.gif


Na haar deelname aan de gevechten om Belgi�
te bevrijden kreeg ze officieelde naam
"Brigade Bevrijding".Aan het
einde van de oorlog werd ze 1ste Infanteriebrigade genoemd en werd achtereenvolgens
gelegerd in Bonn, Gummersbach en Siegen.

Vanaf 1 januari 1946 opereren
drie in Ierland opgeleidde Belgische infanteriebrigades onder bevel van Britse
divisies en kan men van Belgische bezettingseenheden spreken.

Slechts na herhaalde onderhandelingen tussen de Belgische en de Britse
politici kwam het begin maart 1946 dan ook tot een eigen ondersector
voor de Belgen, de BSD (sector van de Belgische Strijdkrachten in Duitsland).




Die Belgische
ondersector in de Britse zone mocht niet tot aan de demarcatielijn met de
Russen reiken, gezien wat in de Europese Adviescommissie was afgesproken. Ook
veel later als de Belgen al een garnizoen in de Amerikaanse zone in Kassel
hadden, bereikte de Belgische zone (het was toen al geen bezettingssector
meer) niet de demarcatielijn met het Oostblok. De bewaking van de
demarcatielijn werd na het ontstaan van de NATO, toen er reeds terug
West-Duitse divisies toegestaan waren, vanaf 1951 een opdracht van de Bundesgrenzschutz .


Er kwam geen BENELUX-sector. Op 20 okt 1945 bezette Luxemburg met 8
compagnies de streek van Bittburg, Merzig en de streek ten noorden en ten
zuiden van Trier, als ondersector van de Franse zone.

lux bezetGIF.gif


1 april 1946 is
de feitelijke start van de Belgische bezetting in Duitsland door de 1e
Infanteriedivisie, met een staf in Bad Godesberg en Luitenant-Generaal
Fromont als bevelhebber.
De Belgische
ondersector liep toen in het westelijk deel van Nord Rhein Westfalen vanaf
de Belgische en Nederlandse grens tot een beetje voorbij de Rijn.


1 Div GIF.gif

Div GIF.gif

Bad Godesberg


In augustus 1946 installeren zich reeds de eerste Belgische families van
militairen in West-Duitsland.


Terug naar boven

Uitbreidingfazen bezettingssector




animatie bezettingszones.gif





vanaf 1 april 1946:�������

Bad Godesberg


vanaf 1 oktober 1946:��



vanaf 1 oktober 1948:��



na 1949:��������



Vanaf 1 oktober
1946 wordt de bezettingssector dus in oostelijke richting verder uitgebreid in
Nord Rhein Westfalen en wordt de ganse sector bezet door het 1e
Legerkorps met daarin de 1e en 2e Infanteriedivisie. De
staf van het 1e Legerkorps vestigt zich op 26 oktober in L�denscheid.


corps 1div 2div ludensch.gif

In december 1946
omvat de 1e Infanteriedivisie de 1e, 2e en 6e
Infanterie Brigade.De 2e
Infanteriedivisie omvat de 3e, 4e en 5e
Infanterie Brigade.

Op 25 december 1946 wordt Generaal Piron commandant van het (1BE)Corps.


In oktober 1948
verhuist de staf van het 1e Legerkorps, herdoopt tot Gevechtskorps,
naar Bonn; alhoewel er dan al geruchten de ronde doen dat daar mogelijk
de zetel van een nieuw te vormen West-Duitse regering zou kunnen komen.
De 1e Infanteriedivisie omvat dan nog slechts de 1een
6e Infanterie Brigade.
De 2e Infanteriedivisie omvat dan nog slechts de 3e en 5e
Infanterie Brigade (de 2e Divisie zal echter al in september 1949 naar de
reserve gaan)

1 en 2 Div min 2 en 4 bde.gif



Terug naar boven



In het kader van het Marshallplan
dat de Europese landen maar
ook Duitsland er economisch terug bovenop moest helpen, werd begin juni 1948 in
West-Duitsland de Deutsche Mark (DM) ingevoerd, ter vervanging van de
waardeloos geworden Reichsmark. De Russen, die dit zagen als een inmenging van
Amerika in de Europse landen, reageerden op 24 juni 1948 met de Blokkade van
Berlijn, waarop de Amerikanen, Britten en Fransen van juni 1948 tot april 1949
een luchtbrug onderhielden om hun bezettingssectoren in West Berlijn te



Terug naar boven

Ontstaan BRD:


Toen op 23 mei 1949 West Duitsland (De Bondsrepubliek) ontstond, moest een
plaats gevonden worden waar de regering zou zetelen. Berlijn kon niet meer
vermits het in de Russische zone lag. Er werd voor Bonn gekozen. De Belgische
troepen die toen ook in die streek gelegerd waren, moesten Bonn verlaten want
een West-Duitse regering in een gebied onder controle van vreemde troepen kon
maar slecht en bovendien waren er gebouwen tekort. Generaal Piron verhuisde
zijn staf slechts met tegenzin, met vertraging en op uitdrukkelijk bevel van de
Britten naar Weiden, waar het hoofdkwartier nadien ook bleef.

De 2e Infanteriedivisie gaat vanaf september 1949 in reserve en de
16e Pantserdivisie komt in de plaats met vier pantser Infanterie
bataljons: 1Cy, 2Cy, 3Cy en 4Cy.

De 1e Infanteriedivisie omvat vanaf dan de 1e, 4e
en 7e Infanterie Brigade.


1 div 2 div 1949 GIF.gif


Terug naar boven

Ontstaan NATO:


Op 4 april 1949 ontstond de NATO en de Belgen stonden kort daarop ook niet meer onder
het bevel van de Britten.



Terug naar boven

Ontstaan van de DDR:


In de sector van de Sovjets ontstond op 7
oktober 1949 de DDR (Deutsche Democratische
Republik) met Oost-Berlijn als hoofdstad.
In West-Berlijn
bleven de Amerikanen, de Britten en de Fransen in hun sectoren aanwezig.
Duitslanden waren van elkaar
gescheiden door de zogenaamde �Innerdeutsche Grenze� , die deel
ging uitmaken van het � IJzeren Gordijn �.


Sinds ook de Sovjet-Unie vanaf 29 augustus
1949 een atoombom
had, bestond er een permanente kerndreiging tussen de Verenigde Staten (NATO)
en de Sovjet-Unie. De koude oorlog was nu goed in gang. De Amerikanen vonden uranium in
Colorado, maar het meeste uranium voor hun Manhattanproject
kwam uit het toenmalige Belgisch Kongo. De Sovjets haalden hun uranium in Oost
Duitsland (DDR) uit het mijnbouwgebied in het Harzgebergte via
de Wismut -onderneming.



In 1951 wordt het Gevechtskorps opnieuw Legerkorps genoemd.

In de 16e Pantserdivisie worden ook de rijdende artillerie eenheden
17RA, 18RA en 19 Ach opgericht en achtereenvolgens uitgerust met houwitsers M7 (105mm),
M44 (155mm), M108 (105mm), M109 en M109A2 (155mm).

Opeenvolgende garnizoenen van deze eenheden:

17RA: Aken (1951), Altenrath (1951-52),
Longerich (1952-56), Altenrath (1956-94).

18RA: Altenrath (1951-52), Euskirchen (1952-65),
(B) Brasschaat (1965-94).

19Ach: D�ren (1951-73), Siegen
Ook Gidsen en Lanciers (tankeenheden) en Jagers te Paard (verkenningseenheden)
vinden we later terug in deze Divisie.


In 1952 komt de 4e Infanteriedivisie in Luik (B) er nog bij, met
de 10e Brigade in Siegburg (en twee Infanterie Brigades in Belgi�:
11e in Tongeren en 12e in Bastogne).

Ze gaat in 1956 in Reserve en wordt in 1968 afgeschaft.

bezet 1952.gif



Op 6 maart 1952 kwam er een akkoord tot stand tussen de Hoge Commissaris
van Uk en VS over de stationering van Belgische troepen onder eigen commando in
de Amerikaanse zone, nl. in Arolsen, Korbach stadt en Landkreis, Kassel,
Waldich, Hofgeismar en Wolfshagen. De Belgen hebben nu niet alleen in Nord
Rhein Westfalen garnizoenen, maar ook in een noordwestelijk stukje van
Hessen.De Belgische sector in Duitsland
is nu meer dan 100 km breed en meer dan 250 km lang (in oppervlakte ongeveer
vergelijkbaar met 2/3 van Belgi�).

Het was niet mogelijk om de meerderheid van onze eenheden ver en ten oosten
van de Rijn, in de nabijheid van het ijzeren gordijn te stationeren, zoals de
voorwaartse strategie van de NATO het wilde.
Daarom werd de onafhankelijke Groepering Dekkingsstrijdkrachten, op
basis van verkennings- en Genie-eenheden, in de onmiddellijke nabijheid van het
ijzeren gordijn gestationeerd, om bij een verrassingsaanval de ter plaatse
stelling (build up) en bescherming van onze troepen mogelijk te maken.

Op 30 oktober 1952 wordt het 1e Regiment Jagers te paard (1JP)
dat sinds 1946 in Arnsberg gelegerd is en dat als verkenningseenheid deel
uitmaakt van de 16e Pantser Divisie, voor een jaar ge�nstalleerd in
Kassel (SPB36) om dat garnizoen in te richten. Eind
1952 is ook het 2e Jagers te Paard (2JP) volledig in Kassel
Op 5 oktober 1953 verhuist 1JP
daarop terug naar Arnsberg.

Arolsen (SPB37) wordt een Belgisch garnizoen in augustus 1952. De voorwacht
van het 2e bataljon Carabiniers Wielrijders (2Cy), komende uit Siegburg,
neemt intrek in Arolsen. Het �Haus des Kurgastes� wordt door de Belgen van de
Amerikanen overgenomen en tot september 1955 als familieclub gebruikt. De
woonwijk �100 Tage-Siedlung� wordt gebouwd op het terrein �Neuer Garten.�

Op 1 november 1952 wordt de streek van Arolsen en Kassel, de �Ondersector
Kassel� die dan rechtstreeks afhangt van de Staf 1(BE)Corps.

Eenheden die oorspronkelijk deel uitmaakten van de Dekkingsstrijdkrachten:

1JP, 2JP, 4L (later afgelost door 4JP), C Esk 2L, 6Gn, 18 Cie ATK, 21 Tpt
Cie (later 10 Tpt Cie), 202 Cie Ordnance, 107 Pl Kwartiermeesters, 7 Cie Med
(later 5 Cie Med), B Pl 16 Cie MP, sectie Provoost, Sectie CIC.
Veel later,
in 1976-1977, was ik commandant van Detachement 202 Cie Materieel in Arolsen.



Terug naar boven

Einde bezettingsstatuut en overgang naar


Na 5 mei 1955, het einde van het bezettingsstatuut, was er geen sprake meer
van bezettingssectoren, maar eerder van zones in West-Duitsland, waarin
de garnizoenen van de Amerikanen, de Britten, de Fransen en de Belgen
gelegen waren. De voormalige bezettingsstrijdkrachten zijn nu


Terug naar boven



Op 14 mei 1955 werd op voorstel van Nikita Chroesjtsjov het
communistische Warschaupact opgericht. Van toen af stond de NATO tegenover het


Op 23 oktober
1956 brak in
Hongarije een volksopstand uit tegen het Sovjet bewind. Op 4 november 1956 vielen
troepen van het
Warschaupact het land binnen en sloegen de opstand neer. De tanks reden Boedapest
binnen. De Hongaren trachtten ze met Molotovcocktails tegen te houden, terwijl
de radio het Westen om hulp vroeg. Het mocht niet baten want het Westen wou
geen oorlog riskeren.


Op 1 maart 1960 werd het �Commando� der Dekkingsstrijdkrachten in kazerne
De Gete in Kassel-Wilhelmsh�he opgericht. Dit Commando voert vanaf dan het
bevel over de Groepering Dekkingsstrijdkrachten die voordien onder rechtstreeks
bevel van de Staf 1(BE)Corps viel.
De Dekkingsstrijdkrachten pasten in het
kader van een reorganisatie van het 1ste Belgische Legerkorps, waarbij de
vorming van twee divisies van het Landcent-type centraal stond.
Op 13 mei 1960 wordt het 1e Regiment Jagers te paard (1JP)
komende vanuit Arnsberg gekazerneerd in Kwarter Olt Antoine in Arolsen en zal
er blijven tot in 1994 (nadien Belgie � Leopoldsburg).2Cy verhuist naar Arnsberg.


Op 1 mei 1960
vierden Amerikaanse, Belgische en West Duitse eenheden de Week van de
Vriendschap in Kassel.

In 1960 worden de 1e Divisie en de 16e Gepantserde
Divisie omgevormd in gemechaniseerde Divisies van het type LANDCENT (Alied LAND
Forces CENTRAL Europe).


bezet 1960 GIF.gif


In augustus 1961 werd in het centrum van
Berlijn door de DDR prikkeldraad uitgerold die achteraf zou uitgroeien tot een
muur op het grondgebied van de DDR, rond gans West Berlijn, waarin zich de
zones van de Amerikanen, Britten en Fransen bevonden.


Een gevaarlijk moment voor een atoomoorlog
kwam er in 1962, toenternauwernood een
confrontatie vermeden werd, nadat op Cuba Sovjet-raketten met een kernlading
gezien waren door U2-verkenningsvliegtuigen
van de VS. Fidel Castro had zich immers, na de mislukte invasie door de
Amerikanen in de varkensbaai, tot de Sovjet-Unie gewend voor militaire bijstand.
Via de Sovjet kolonel Oleg Penkowski die voor de westerse CIA en MI6 spioneerde,
was President Kennedy ervan op de hoogte dat er 99 sovjet raketten type SS4 op
Cuba gestationeerd werden. Kennedy verordende een blokkade van Cuba maar greep
Cuba niet aan. In een televisietoespraak verwittigde Kennedy de wereld ervan
dat Chroesjtsjov hiermee de ganse USA bedreigde. Na onderhandelingen met
Chroesjtsjov en toegevingen vanwege de Amerikanen (Amerikaanse raketten weg uit
Turkije), werden de sovjet raketten op Cuba ontmanteld. Zonder de informatie
die Kolonel Oleg Penkowski aan het westen bezorgde was het toen bijna zeker tot
een atoomoorlog gekomen.

Als lid van de NATO (en partner van de VS)
was voor onze eenheden in de BSD de atoomoorlog
nooit veraf en de opleiding en training omvatte dan ook Nucleaire Biologische
en Chemische oorlogvoering.


Op 21 augustus 1968 rolden Russische tanks
de Tsjecho-Slowaakse hoofdstad Praag binnen. De troepen van het Warschaupact
maakten er een bruusk eind aan de zogenaamde �Praagse
Lente � (de periode van liberalisme en socialisme met een menselijk gezicht
van Alexander
Dubcek ).Buiten de permanente dreiging van een
kernoorlog, was dit tijdens de �Koude Oorlog� alweer een incident waarvoor de
NATO en dus ook onze eenheden in de BSD in een beperkt alarmstadium van
waakzaamheid belandden.
Als jonge Officier bleef ik toen van permanentie in
de staf van 210 Cie Ord Maint want men vreesde dat een inval binnen de
mogelijkheden lag.


Rond 1970 telt
het 1e Belgische Legerkorps nog twee Divisies.
– De 16e Pantser Divisie heet nu 16e Divisie.
– In de 1e Divisie zijn de Brigades nu Pantserinfanteriebrigades.
– De 4e Bde uit Soest, die voordien deel uitmaakte van de 16e
Pantser Divisie, maakt nu als 4 Ps Inf Bde deel uit van de 1e


3 bdes gif.gif


– De 1e
Divisie met drie pantserinfanteriebrigades: (1e Ps Inf Bde in
Siegen, 4de Ps Inf Bde in Soest en 7e Ps Inf Bde in
Zelf heb ik
deel uitgemaakt van de Nederlandstalige 1 Ps Inf Bde in Siegen (december 1970
tot september 1974) en van de Franstalige 7 Ps Inf Bde in Spich (oktober 1974
tot juli 1976).

Elke brigade
bestond uit: twee Bataljons Pantser Infanterie, ��n Tank Bataljon, ��n Bataljon
Artillerie, een Cie HK (Hoofd Kwartier), een Cie ATK (antitank), een Cie Gn
(genie) een Cie Rav & Tpt
(bevoorrading en transport), een Cie Mat (onderhoud en herstelling
materieel), een Cie Med (medische interventies).
De Cie Rav & Tpt, de Cie Mat en de Cie Med kregen hun bevelen vanuit de Cie
HK via de S4 van de brigade.


brigade wit.gif


Naast deze
divisies waren er in het 1(Be)Corps ook nog Groeperingen, zoals de 1e
en 2e Groepering Logistiek, met logistieke bataljons waarvan de logistieke
eenheden verspreid waren over de ganse BSD-zone. Zelf deed ik ook enige tijd
dienst in het 20e Bn Ordnance in de 210 Cie Ord Maint in
Probsteierwald (oktober 1967 tot dec 1970), en in het 18e Bn
Logistiek in het Detachement 202 Cie Materieel in Arolsen (augustus 1976 tot
november 1977) en aansluitend in hetzelfde bataljon maar in 202 Cie Materieel
in L�denscheid (december 1977 tot juni 1978).


Inmaart 1969 werd de groepering
dekkingsstrijdkrachten (die in 1952 was opgericht), in het garnizoen Kassel (en
de ondersector Kassel) ontbonden.
Een nieuw tijdperk voor de
verkenningseenheden die hoewel korpstroepen, dan worden toegevoegd aan de 16de
Divisie, die weldra in haar Staf te Neheim een supplementaire sectie Recce

Vermits beveiliging van de Belgische
sector, hoe minimaal ook, nog steeds noodzakelijk was, werden de drie
verkenningsregimenten, 1JP (in Arolsen), 2JP (in L�denscheid) en 4JP (in
Arnsberg), elk met drie eskadrons, in maart 1969 onder bevel geplaatst van de
Commandant van de 16de Divisie, tot de sectie CRecce (Commando van de
Verkenningstroepen) er vier maanden later werd opgericht.

Het 6e
Genie Bataljon verhuist op 7 augustus 1969 vanuit Kassel naar Delbr�ck. Het 2e
Regiment Jagers te paard (2JP) verhuist op 15 augustus 1970 vanuit Kassel naar
L�denscheid (en wordt in 2004 afgeschaft). Het terugtrekken van deze
dekkingsstrijdkrachten werd niet gezien als afbreuk aan de veiligheid vermits
de oude tanks zouden vervangen worden door veel snellere en beter uitgeruste
Leopard tanks.

Vanaf 1976 viel de Sectie Recce niet meer
onder de operationele controle van de Staf van de 16 Divisie en werd zij
aangehecht aan de Staf van het 1(BE)Corps.

In september 1977 verhuisde de Sectie Recce
van Neheim-H�sten naar het meer oostwaarts gelegen Arolsen en nam haar intrek
in het Kwartier Onderluitenant Antoine waar op dat ogenblik 1JP, Detachement
202 Cie Materieel, 107 Pl Rav en 14 Cie Gn gekazerneerd waren.Ik was er commandant van het Detachement 202 Cie Materieel

Het 3L (een tankbataljon) versterkt in januari 1979 de
Verkenningstroepen. Sinds die dag beval de CRecce vier eenheden, drie
verkenningsregimenten (1JP, 2JP, 4JP) en ��n tankregiment (3L).


In de
daaropvolgende jaren onderging de organisatie van de BSD nog heel wat
hervormingen, teveel om ze hier allemaal op te noemen.

Er waren enige tijd (tot de jaren 70) Engelstalige Canadezen in de Britse
sector (gelegen ten noorden van de Belgische ondersector) en
Franstalige Canadezen in de
Franse sector (gelegen ten zuiden van de Belgische ondersector).


Rond 1980 verbleven nagenoeg 60.000 Belgen in de BSD-zone, daarvan 20.000
militairen, 10.000 dienstplichtigen, 3.000 BAK (Burgerlijke Arbeids-Krachten)
en 27.000 familieleden.


In 1985 werd Michail Gorbatsjov
president van de Sovjet-Unie.
Hij hoopte de vastlopende Sovjet-Unie weer op gang te kunnen krijgen
door � glasnost �
(openheid) en � perestrojka � (hervorming). Er kwam vanuit de Sovjet-Unie
wat meer openheid naar het buitenland. De Sovjets zaten in een diepe malaise en
waren verwikkeld in een uitzichtloze strijd in Afghanistan en ze kampten
binnenslands met onlusten wegens de slechte economische situatie. De industrie
was verouderd en voor het eerst was het morele gezag van de communistische
partij tot het nulpunt gedaald.

Einde augustus
1989 kwam in
Polen onder invloed van Solidarność ,
een eerste niet-communistische premier achter het IJzeren
Gordijn . Dit was nooit eerder gezien in de
Oostblok-landen. En voor het eerst werd door de machthebbers in Moskou afgezien van een
militaire tussenkomst. Er kwam persvrijheid en de overgang van de planeconomie
naar markteconomie .
Het bracht in Centraal- en
Oost-Europa een beweging op gang die in het najaar van 1989 zou leiden tot vreedzame
omverwerping van de communistische regimes en de val van de Berlijnse Muur.



Terug naar boven

NAVO-Corpsen jaren tachtig:

opstelling corpsen in Duistland.jpg


Terug naar boven

Einde koude oorlog:


Na de val van de
Berlijnse muur op 9 november 1989 (het symbool van het einde van de Koude
Oorlog) volgde de wedervereniging van Oost- en West Duitsland.

Gorbatsjov liep gevaar dat men in de Sovjet�Unie zijn toestemming tot de
wedervereniging van Duistland niet zou aanvaarden en hem opzij zou schuiven
(wat achteraf ook gebeurde). Bovendien zat de Sovjet-Unie economisch aan de
grond en waren er onlusten. Tijdens de gesprekken voorafgaand aan de
wedervereniging had Helmut Cool (West Duitsland) aan Gorbatjov hulp toegezegd
(niet zonder eigenbelang om die wedervereniging er door te krijgen). Zo werd
door West-Duitsland ondermeer voedsel geleverd.

Anderzijds waren de andere westerse
grootmachten, USA, Frankrijk en Groot Brittanni� zeer verwonderd toen ze weet
kregen over die mogelijke wedervereniging van Oost- en West-Duistland; en ze
waren er ook niet direct een voorstander van. De Fransen zeiden zelfs dat ze
Duitsland zo graag zagen, dat er zelfs twee van mochten blijven bestaan.

Niet alleen tussen Helmut Cool (West
Duitsland) en Gorbatjov waren er gesprekken, maar ook de NATO werd er in
betrokken. Gorbatjov toetste of de NATO dan niet naar het oosten zou
uitbreiden, maar dit werd natuurlijk ontkend en er werd bevestigd dat de
oostgrens van de NATO zou blijven waar ze op dat moment liep.

Later is gebleken dat de NATO-grens toch
overal naar het oosten is opgeschoven, wat Vladimir Putin (Russische Federatie)
thans ziet als een schending van de toenmalige afspraken.
De NATO-grens is echter opgeschoven doordat vroegere Oostbloklanden zelf
vroegen om te mogen toetreden tot Europa en tot de NATO. Putin daarentegen
heeft de Krim met geweld ingelijfd en stuurde ook zijn troepen naar Oekra�ne.


De opheffing van
de Sovjet-Unie op 26 december 1991 wordt gezien als het daadwerkelijke einde
van de Koude Oorlog.

De Koude Oorlog liep
op zijn eind en onze eenheden en de families van de militairen konden vanuit de
BSD terug naar Belgi� gebracht worden. Er volgden meerdere
restructuraties waarbij ook veel
eenheden afgeschaft werden en de laatste Belgische militairen tenslotte in 2003
vanuit Spich de BSD verlieten.

Het hoofdkwartier van de 1e
Divisie verhuisde naar Verviers (B); de 7e Pantserinfanteriebrigade
(uit Spich) naar Marche-en-famenne (B) en de 1e
Pantserinfanteriebrigade (uit Siegen) naar Leopoldsburg (B).

Een voorbeeld van Belgische troepen die hun
garnizoen in Duitsland verlaten:

6A verlaat Soest (deel1) – Youtube

6A verlaat Soest (deel2) – Youtube


Alle eenheden met hun opeenvolgende
garnizoen in Duitsland opsommen was hier niet mogelijk


In 1993 werd de dienstplicht opgeschort.

In 1995 werd het 1(BE)Corps omgevormd tot Interventiemacht met de 1e
Gemechaniseerde Divisie en de Brigade Para-Commando. Het hoofdkwartier vestigde
zich in 1996 in Saive bij Luik (B). Het einde van de Koude Oorlog brengt voor
de Belgische militairen een taakverschuiving teweeg; de aandacht verschuiftvan het verdedigen van NATO-grondgebied naar
crisisbeheersing ver buiten onze landgrenzen.


Hieronder een bondig overzicht van plaatsen waar tussen 1946 en 2002
Belgische garnizoenen en/of Belgische scholen waren.



Het oefenterrein Vogelsang, ten zuiden van Aachen, werd in 1946 door de
Amerikanen overgedragen aan de Britten, die het op hun beurt in 1950
overdroegen aan de Belgen vermits het in de Belgische ondersector van de
Britten gelegen was.

In het kader van de herstructurering van de Belgische strijdkrachten werd Kamp Vogelsang in juli
2005 ontbonden en is sinds 1 januari 2006 opengesteld voor bezoekers; het maakt
nu deel uit van het Nationalpark-Eifel .
NB: Dit kamp niet verwarren met Kamp Vogelzang in Zehdenick (Brandenburg), dat
een Sovjet garnizoen was ten N.O. van Berlijn, tot bij de aftocht van de
Russische troepen in 1994.


De Landmacht beschikte over vliegvelden voor lichte vliegtuigen (waaronder
helikopters) in Merzbr�ck (18e Esc Lt Avn), B�tsweilerhof (16e
Esc Lt Avn) en Werl (17e Esc Lt Avn). Onderhoud en herstelling
werden gedaan in B�tsweilerhof door 255 Cie Ord Lt Avn, later 255 Cie Maint
& Dep Lt Avn genoemd.

In K�ln Wahn was er een groter vliegveld.


In elk garnizoen was er een Medisch Huis waar de families van de militairen
terecht konden.De Belgische
strijdkrachten in Duitsland beschikten ook over twee militaire hospitalen, waar
ook de families van de militairen terecht konden; een in Soest en een in K�ln
(in de Ottostra�e), waar onze zoon in 1975 geboren is.


Er was een krijgsauditoraat in Neheim en in K�ln-Marienburg; in beide heb ik
gezeteld in de Krijgsraad.


Tussen 1959 en 1990 stonden Nike
luchtdoelraketten opgesteld in Belgische Luchtmachteenheden ten westen van
de Rijn, nabij de grenzen van Belgi� en Nederland (9e Misile Wing in
Grefraht, Xanten, Kapellen, Herhahn, Hinbeck en 13e Misile
Wing in D�ren, Blankenheim, Euskirchen, Kaster). Hawkraketten
stonden tussen 1966 en 1990 opgesteld in Belgische Artillerie eenheden ver ten
oosten van de Rijn, nabij de demarcatielijn (43A in Brakel, 62A in Essentho,

Bij MCG (Mouvement Controle
Group) stond DVT beschreven als Dagelijkse Verlofgangerstrein; sommigen spreken
echter over Duitse Verlofgangers Trein.
Het LTB (Lokaal Transport Bureau) deed de controle in de treinstations
(militaren met een rode armband met treinwiel).

Dagelijkse verlofgangerstrein zuidelijk traject:


Van Brussel naar

Van Siegen naar Brussel

Brussel Noord:







Aachen Hbf:














Aachen Hbf:







Brussel noord:


Tussen Brussel en Troisdorf reed een elektrische locomotief; tussen Troisdorf
en Siegen in den beginne een stoomlocomotief; in Troisdorf werden toen beide
locomotieven uitgewisseld.
Siegen lag op het zuidelijk traject en was er na Troisdorf (Spich) het
eindstation van.Het traject Brussel –
Siegen duurde ongeveer 5 uur en half.

G�mmersbach, L�denscheid,
Soest, Attendorn, Werl, Neheim, B�ren, Essentho, Arolsen, Korbach, Brakel,
Kassel, liggen noordelijker dan Siegen en werden bediend via het noordelijk
, dat veel verder in West-Duitsland doorliep dan het zuidelijk
traject, verder richting Warburg en oorspronkelijk ook naar Kassel tot dit
garnizoen in 1970 verlaten werd.
Dagelijkse verlofgangerstrein noordelijk traject:
Het traject Brussel-Soest duurde ongeveer 6 uur en half.

����������� treintrajectendvt.gif


was niet elke dag een DVT voor elk garnizoen want de ene keer reed de DVT vanaf
Keulen het zuidelijjk traject in West-Duitsland, de andere keer het noordelijke
traject; beide trajecten passeerden vanuit Brussel komende: Aken, D�ren en
Keulen. Vanaf Keulen begon in feite pas het zuidelijk- of het noordelijk
traject. Voor de garnizoenen die verder dan Keulen lagen was er dus niet elke
dag een DVT. De uurregeling van het noordelijke traject wijzigde in de loop der
jaren meermaals.

Sommige garnizoenen lagen niet op een treinroute waardoor bussen of camions
ingezet werden naar een station op de treinroute.


Terloops: Zoals hogerop reeds vermeld, leverde Nederland,
op vraag van de NAVO, vanaf 1960 stationeringsstrijdkrachten in het noorden van
West-Duitsland (BRD).
De 41e Lichte Brigade, werd later 41e Pantser Brigade en
groeide uit tot 40.000 militairen.
Nederlandse militairen reisden per bus tussen Nederland en de
legerplaatsen in West-Duitsland.

Een en ander was afhankelijk van de opstapplaatsen in Nederland (Zwolle,
Groningen of Nijmegen) en de bestemmingen in West-Duitsland (Seedorf, Hohne of
Men kreeg een vervoersbewijs om per trein tussen de woonplaats en de
opstapplaats van de bus te reizen.
De eerste jaren (1963, 1964) werd tussen Nederland en West-Duitsland nog per
trein gereisd i.p.v. met de bus, vanaf station Godenstedt, op loopafstand van
kazerne Seedorf (BRD).

Reeds in 1946 was men in de garnizoenen
gestart met Belgische lagere scholen voor de kinderen van de militairen.

Na de zomer van 1948 kwam er ook een secundaire school
(internaat) in
Bad Honnef, zowel Franstalig als
Nederlandstalig (Latijn-Grieks en Latijn-Wetenschappelijk). Op 13 januari 1950
verhuisde deze school naar de �Harding Barracks� in
Wuppertal, maar slechts tot de Paasvacantie op
5 april 1950.

De gebouwen aan en rond Schloss Venauen in R�srath waren klaar einde maart. De
toenmalige prefect Paul Sak vestigde zich op 5 april 1950 in Schloss Lerbach
(in de buurt van R�srath). De leerkrachten kwamen aan op zondag 15 april 1950
en op maandag 16 april begonnen de lessen in R�srath.Een tweetalig en bovendien gemengd (weliswaar
gescheiden) internaat en dat was in die tijd een unicum in de Belgische
scholengeschiedenis !!
Er kwamen in de
daarop volgende jaren naast R�srath en Bensberg ook secundaire scholen in
Volkmarsen, Soest, L�denscheid, enz.
In 1966 kwam het in
Bensberg tot een Koninklijk



leerlingen van de heel ver oostelijk gelegen garnizoenen
o.a. Essentho � Brakel � Arolsen � Volksmarsen �
Korbach en Kassel vertrokken in de jaren 60 vanuit Bensberg met de bus naar
het station van K�ln en vandaar met de trein naar Kassel eindstation. Ze
vertrokken op vrijdagnamiddag om 15 h om pas �s avonds laat thuis aan te
komen. Onderweg stapten de leerlingen van een aantal eveneens ver oostelijk
gelegen garnizoenen reeds uit in Volksmarsen (Warburg) en werden van daaruit
met bussen naar hun respectievelijke garnizoenen gebracht.

zondagmiddag 13h vertrok de trein terug vanuit Kassel naar Bensberg; trein
tot in K�ln en dan bus naar Bensberg, waar men �s avonds aankwam rond 18h. De
leerlingen uit B�ren gingen naar Soest en van daaruit met de bus naar
Bensberg. Een hele onderneming voor kinderen van 11 � 12 jaar en voor het
eerst op internaat, met een grote valies voor 14 daags verblijf en nog
een zware boekentas bovenop.
De treinreizigers waren de enigen die 14 dagen op internaatbleven. Vanaf de jaren 70 verbleven ze in
het nieuw bijgekomen internaat in Soest en keerden wekelijks


De leerlingen uit al de minder ver
oostelijk gelegen garnizoenen kwamen altijd per bus
naar Bensberg; hoe groter het
garnizoen, hoe meer bussen. Als het weekend begon vertrokken zo�n 45 militaire
bussen vanuit Bensberg: eerst de internen naar de ver van K�ln gelegen
garnizoenen en dan naar de garnizoenen wat dichter bij K�ln;vervolgens al de externen die in de
buurt van K�ln woonden.
Slot Bensberg (vanaf 1965) was in die tijd de middelbare school voor
Vlaamse kinderen zowel internaat als externaat. De Waalse jongeren waren in
R�srath gebleven.

Na openstellen van eveneens een internaat in Soest (begin
70) en het verdwijnen van garnizoen Kassel was er nog enkel busvervoer.

Aanvankelijk droeg het onderwijzend personeel het
militair uniform en was gelijkgesteld Lager officier (de Prefect gelijkgesteld
Hoger Officier).
Het verplicht
militair uniform was in voege tot in 1959 en werd trouwens niet alleen door de
leerkrachten maar ook door de leerlingen gedragen. Voor de leerlingen (jongens
en meisjes) eerst allemaal in kaki en later voor de meisjes een luchtmachtblauw
uniform met baret en er was tevens een dagelijkse vlaggegroet.
Met dank aan Katrien van Hoey, leerlinge Bensberg 67-73
voor haar bijdrage aan de rubriek over de scholen.

Link naar website Koninklijk Atheneum Bensberg



Uit het bundel ‘Belgisch
Bezettingseger (BBL) en de Belgische Strijdkrachten in Duitsland (BSD) 1945
-1995; van Cdt. o.r. Walther Rotsaert


Effectieven 1 (Be) Korps

De BSD telt nu 65.000 leden in 27 garnizoenen over een oppervlakte zo groot
als Belgi� met 12.000 gezinnen (waaronder 21.500 kinderen).

Actieve officieren: 1.648
Reserve oficieren: 332
Actieve onderofficieren: 6.249
Reserveonderofficieren: 679
Beroepsvrijwilligers: 5.389
Dienstplichtigen: 15.994
Totaal: 30.291
Gezinsleden: 33.781


December 1967

Actieve officieren:

Reserve officieren:

Actieve onderofficieren:

Reserve onderofficieren:























September 1970

Actieve officieren:

Reserve officieren:

Actieve onderofficieren:

Reserve onderofficieren:















April 1980

Beroeps + dienstplichtig

Burgerlijke leden:






Februari 1992














November 1996


Burgerlijke leden:





Mei 2001







Op 7 juni 2002 greep de Afscheids- en Ontbindingsparade plaats in
het kwartier Deschepper in Spich, naar aanleiding van de terugkeer van de
resterende eenheden uit de BSD naar Belgi�, onder voorzitterschap van koning
Albert II en de president van de Bondsrepubliek Duitsland, Johannes Rau. Dit
is het offici�le einde van de tegenwoordigheid van de Belgische
Strijdkrachten in Duitsland

Augustus 2002:









433 gezinnen met ca. 1.400 gezinsleden wensen in
Duitsland te blijven wonen


Met dank aan Commandant b.d. Walther Rotsaert voor zijn
bijdrage aan deze pagina.



Terug naar boven

Als militair met familie bij de �BSD� in Duitsland (WIJ
verbleven er tussen 1968 en 1978)


Enkele begrippen:

De Belgische Strijdkrachten in Duitsland.Vanaf 1
april 1946 waren er drie Belgische infanteriebrigades in Duitsland onder Brits
bevel en kon men in feite al over �bezettingseenheden� spreken. Kort daarop
kregen de Belgen een eigen ondersector, binnen de Britse bezettingssector,
steeds onder Brits bevel.Op 4 april
1949 ontstond de NAVO (verdrag getekend in Washington). Op 23 mei 1949 ontstond
in west Duitsland de Bondsrepubliek Duitsland (BRD). Op 7 oktober 1949 ontstond
in oost Duitsland de Duitse Democratische Republiek (DDR) onder communistisch
regime. De BRD werd op 9 mei 1955 NAVO-partner.

nieuwe gezamenlijke vijand was nu de Sovjet-Unie met zijn Warschau pact
(waaronder de DDR), dat werd opgericht op 14 mei 1955. Van bezettingssectoren
was nu binnen de NATO geen spraak meer en de Belgen stonden ook niet meer onder
Brits bevel.


ector van de Belgische Strijdkrachten in Duitsland (toen
soms onze 10de provincie genoemd).

OBBSD: Opper Bevelhebber der Belgische Strijdkrachten in Duitsland.

Garnizoen: Plaats waar zich een kazerne bevindt. Militairen
gelegerd in Duitsland mochten hun garnizoen slechts verlaten mits toestemming
van hun compagniecommandant (en dus niet zo maar naar een andere stad gaan

De grote,
meestal rode stempels, met namen zoals
ELDORADO of PANAMA op de militaire identiteitskaarten, waren codenamen. Via deze codenamen konden grote groepen militairen die bijvoorbeeld met
verlof waren in Belgi�, via een openbaar radiobericht naar hun eenheid worden
teruggeroepen. Door het toekennen van diverse codenamen aan diverse eenheden of
personeelscategorie�n, was het mogelijk selectief bepaalde groepen terug naar
het garnizoen te roepen en andere nog niet.

agelijkse Verlofgangers Trein. Trein die reed
tussen Brussel en de garnizoenen in Duitsland. Voorbehouden aan militairen en
hun families; wagons opgedeeld volgens categorie (officieren, onderofficieren
en troep).Vertrok bvb vanuit Siegen
naar Brussel rond 03 uur �s nachts en deed al de garnizoenen aan die langs die
lijn gelegen waren.

Bovenop de verlofdagen kregen militairen
een aantal bijkomende reisdagen. Hoe verder in Duitsland gelegerd, hoe m��r
bijkomende reisdagen.

De Dienst Huisvesting Families beheerde in de garnizoenen in Duitsland de huizen
en meubelen die aan de gehuwde militairen en hun families gratis ter
beschikking gesteld werden. Wanneer men pas in een nieuw garnizoen was
toegekomen kon het gebeuren dat men op een wachtlijst kwam te staan omdat er
geen gratis woning beschikbaar was.
Desgewenst kon men dan zelf iets huren en kreeg men daarvan een gedeelte

Elk garnizoen beschikte over een militaire
dokter waarop de familie van de militair gratis beroep kon doen. Ook de medicijnen
waren gratis.

De militairen hadden ook in Duitsland recht
op gratis verzorging in een militair hospitaal; ook hun familie kon daar
terecht.Militairen gekazerneerd in
Duitsland, maar met verlof in Belgi�, konden de medische kosten die ze in
Belgi� maakten terugvorderen. Onze zoon, Mike, werd geboren in de kraamafdeling
van het Militair Hospitaal in K�ln, wij woonden toen in Spich. De geboorteakte
werd opgesteld in mijn compagnie en getekend door de korpscommandant, met als getuigen
enkele militairen. De akte werd nadien opgestuurd naar onze gemeente in Belgi�
om er opgenomen te worden in het bevolkingsregister.

In elk garnizoen was er een Mess voor
officieren, een Mess voor onderofficieren, een mess voor BV�s en een refter +
kantine voor soldaten miliciens.De
families van de militairen hadden elk toegang tot hun specifieke mess.

Mess officieren:

Op gelijkvloers

bar, mess, keuken.

Op 1ste verdieping logementen.


(Probsteierwald 1968)


In de mess officieren en de mess
onderofficieren gaat niemand aan tafel vooraleer de �hoogste in graad� plaats

nadien binnen komt stelt zich voor aan �de hoogste in graad� en vraagt
toestemming om ook aan tafel te gaan.

In elk garnizoen was er een kleuterschool
en een lagere school. Vanaf de middelbare school gingen de kinderen op
internaat in de Belgische scholen in Bensberg of R�srath; voor weekends en
verloven werden ze met militaire bussen terug naar het garnizoen gebracht. Het
onderwijzend personeel kreeg toegang tot de mess officieren.

in de garnizoenen:
In elk garnizoen was
er een cinema waar dagelijks ondertittelde films gespeeld werden (gratis voor
de dienstplichtigen).

De muziek en groeten tijdens �Het Half
uurtje van de soldaat� kende een groot succes, maar in de garnizoenen ten
Oosten van de Rijn was de Vlaamse radiozender praktisch niet te ontvangen. De
uitzending werd beluisterd in de kantien troep, tijdens het avondmaal van de
troepen want radio�s waren op de kamer verboden vanwege het
elektriciteitsverbruik (radio�s nog met buizen i.p.v. transistoren).

AFN: American Forces Network. De Amerikaanse zender met
nieuws en muziek voor de Amerikanen en geallieerden in West-Duitsland.

TV: Tot in het begin van de jaren 70 kon men in de
garnizoenen uitsluitende de Duitse TV zenders ontvangen (ARD, WDR, ZDF). Nadien
werd in bijna alle garnizoenen een zendmast geplaatst via de welke de Belgische
TV programma�s in relais konden ontvangen worden in de kazernes en bij de
gezinnen van militairen.

In de meeste garnizoenen was er een
militair zwembad (soms in open lucht) waarvan ook de families gratis gebruik
mochten maken.

In Duitsland kregen gehuwde
beroepsmilitairen een belastingsvrije bijkomende vergoeding (in Deutsche
mark).In 1965 werd ze als volgt
vastgelegd, per dag: 13DM voor opperofficieren, 12 DM voor hoofdofficieren,
10DM voor subalterne officieren, 5,1DM voor onderofficieren en 4DM voor
korporaals en soldaten. 1DM was toen ongeveer gelijk aan 12 Bef.

1968 verdiende ik als jonge officier (onderluitenant) in de BSD een wedde van
zo�n 11.000 Bef/maand (=275 euro/m)+
zo�n 305 DM/maand verwijderingsvergoeding = 3.660 Bef/m (= 91 euro/m); samen 14.660 Bef (=366
Dienstplichtigen moesten
het alleen redden met hun karige soldij.

1974 verhoogde de verwijderingsvergoeding: Opper-en hogere officieren 14DM/d,
subalterne officieren 12DM/d, onderofficieren 7DM/d en korporaals en soldaten

antine Militaire Centrale , Militaire Hoofdkantine: Belgische
winkels in de garnizoenen in Duitsland waar de militairen en hun families
taksvrij konden kopen.
Maar de Belgische militairen konden ook taksvrij hun inkopen doen in de winkels
van de geallieerden in de Franse-, Britse- en Us-zone. Voor moderne
elektronische apparaten werd de winkel van de Amerikanen in Wiesbaden druk
bezocht en als er een groot bataljonsfeest was werden de wijnen al eens gehaald
bij de Fransen. Tijdens de oefeningen in H�ne (N-Duitsland) kon men daar
terecht in de Britse NAAFI-winkels (Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes) om bvb
wat parfum te kopen voor de echtgenote.

de Britse sector werkten Canadezen samen met de Britten, zonder er een eigen
Canadese zone te hebben (gezien hun gering aantal en de vlak na de oorlog nog
geringe politieke invloed van Canada). Ook in de Franse sector waren er Canadezen.
De Belgische militairen konden ook in die Canadese winkels terecht.
Als je vanuit Duitsland waren mee naar Belgi� bracht, moest je die bij de
douane wel aangeven. Voor goederen waarop in Duitsland BTW betaald was, kon je
die BTW (mehrwertsteuer) evtl. recupereren na het betalen van de Belgische
invoerrechten, maar je verloor dan heel wat tijd aan de grensovergang (zeker
als de douanebeambten juist van ploeg wisselden). De beroepsmilitairen die door
de BZ-plaat op hun auto goed herkenbaar waren, werden er aan de grensovergangen
dikwijls uitgepikt voor een stevige controle.

BELAAC: Belgian and Allied
Army Clubs (VZW 1945 -1955).

Tijdschrift VICI 1953 op website Kamp Vogelsang en BELAAC (in het Engels)

In die jaren bestond de GSM nog niet; het
eerste netwerk in Belgi� kwam er pas in 1994; de verplichte legerdienst was dan
al opgeschort (1993). Ook over een vaste telefoon beschikten in de jaren 50, 60
en 70 nog maar weinigen in Belgi� en in de BSD had nagenoeg niemand een vaste
telefoon; de contacten tussen families en vrienden uit Belgi� en de militairen
in de BSD verliepen vooral via briefwisseling.

SPB-BPS: In elk Belgisch garnizoen in Duitsland kwam er een afdeling van
de Belgische Post…
SPB: (Secundair Post
In het Frans BPS. Elk garnizoen had zijn eigen
SPB-nummer. Niet de naam van het garnizoen maar wel het SPB-Nr werd in het
militair adres vermeld.
Zo werden de garnizoensplaatsen een
beetje verdoezeld op de briefwisseling; voor een buitenstaander was het niet
meteen duidelijk waar bijvoorbeeld SPB2 zich zou kunnen bevinden.
Mits vermelding van het SPB-nummer, het stamnummer en de
letters M.D. in de rechter bovenhoek van de brief, was de post van en naar
miliciens in de BSD gratis voor brieven tot 20 gr.
In elke SPB was er een postmeester
(personeelslid van de post). In de eenheden was er een militaire brievendrager
die de post afhaalde in het SPB en ze nadien in de eenheid verder
verdeelde. In het SPB kon men ook financi�le verrichtingen doen.
SDS: De dienst voor estafettes verzorgde
interne militaire post tussen de garnizoenen en van en naar Belgi�.

Abwickelung schein:
Document waarmee
militairen de Duitse BTW (mehrwertsteuer) konden terugvorderen via de CMC, voor
hun grote aankopen in Duitse winkels.

Naast de �Militaire Politie� was er in elk
garnizoen ook een dienst �provoost�. De MP�s hielden zich vooral bezig met de
wetgeving op militair vlak; de dienst �provoost� (rijkswacht) met alles

In die tijd kon een militair door zijn
compagniecommandant zwaar gestraft worden, zonder recht op bijstand bij zijn
verdediging. Een aantal dagen �PK�
(Politie Kamer) kwamen veel voor. Ook �cachot� kwam voor maar moest worden
bevestigd door de Korpscommandant. Die korpscommandant zat met zijn staf soms
in een ander garnizoen en de te straffen militair moest zich dan daar aanbieden
bij die Hogere Officier die hij misschien voordien nog nooit gezien had;
behoorlijk stresserend.Bij �PK� moest
de gestrafte onmiddellijk na de diensturen met zijn matras naar het cachot om
daar te overnachten; gedurende de dag vervulde hij gewoon zijn dienst.Bij �cachot� bleef de gestrafte gedurende de
ganse straftijd in het cachot. Aan elke ingang van een kazerne, bij de
wachtpost, waren toen meerdere cachotten (gevangeniscellen).Als officier van wacht kon je een amokmaker
meteen in het cachot steken.
Dienstplichtigen (miliciens) die in het cachot gezeten hadden moesten
die tijd inhalen als hun kameraden al afgezwaaid waren; ze bleven dus �na de

CIC: In elk garnizoen was er een Counter Intelligency Center
(zeg maar contra spionage centrum) dat toezicht hield op de militaire
geheimhouding (opbergen van geclassificeerde documenten, beveiliging
wapenmagazijnen, testen wachtconsignes, loslippigheid van militairen op
openbare plaatsen, enz.)

Als je als militair op reis wou naar een
Oost-Europees land (bvb Joegoslavi�), moest je daartoe de toestemming krijgen,
zeker als je voor je taak toegang had tot vertrouwelijke of geheime informatie.
Je beweegredenen werden door de veiligheidsdienst bekeken, ook de frequentie
van die reizen. Vervolgens kreeg je een hoop richtlijnen waaraan je te houden
voornamelijk met de bedoeling je te behoeden voor een compromitterende houding
waardoor je nadien zou kunnen afgeperst worden om z� aan gevoelige informatie
te geraken.

MILAC: Een Katholieke organisatie die in feite niets te zien
had met de BSD maar die de dienstplichtigen steunde. In Belgi� in het leven
gehouden door de pastoors en onderpastoors in de parochies. Bij de BSD werd de
taak waargenomen door de aalmoezeniers.

Als militair in Duitsland mochten we een
auto �in transit� kopen en betaalden er dan geen BTW op. We reden met een
zwarte nummerplaat met witte cijfers en letters, de zogenaamde BZ-plaat (British Zone vermits de BSD daarin gelegen was).


BZ-controle: De personenwagens van de militairen kregen hun
jaarlijkse technische keuring niet in een keuringsstation in Belgi�. De keuring
werd uitgevoerd door mechanici van de compagnie Maintenance in hun garnizoen.

We kregen bons waarmee we in Duitsland
goedkoper konden tanken (in 1968 koste 1 liter benzine voor ons 2 Bef); hoe
verder in Duitsland, hoe m��r bons.

grens liaison:
Deze sectie was gelegen in Eynatten (aan de
grens Belgi�-Duitsland) en was de militairen behulpzaam bij het afhandelen van
de douanedocumenten bij hun verhuis van Duitsland naar Belgi� of andersom (en
ondermeer ook bij het inklaren van hun BZ-voertuig). De verhuis van de huisraad
van de militair en zijn familie (ook tussen garnizoenen) gebeurde in die tijd
met militaire camions.

Een oefening waarbij alle militairen onverwacht
(meestal �s nachts) de kazerne moesten vervoegen om zo snel mogelijk met alle
voertuigen en materieel te vertrekken naar een ander Kantonnement. De
wapenuitrusting moest ook thuis steeds klaar liggen. De oefening kon enkele
dagen duren, ook de familie bleef in het ongewisse van de duur ervan.

Vanuit Arolsen reden we wel eens tot aan
het IJzeren Gordijn in de buurt van Duderstadt (75 km ten oosten van Kassel).
Hongarije begon op 2 mei 1989 als eerste met het afbreken.

Soxmis: Sovjet Exercise Mission.

een verdrag, tussen de geallieerden overeengekomen vlak na de Tweede Wereldoorlog,
mocht de Sovjet-Unie gebruik maken van bepaalde wegen in West-Duitsland,
ondermeer in de BAOR-sector (sector British Army Of the Rhine), waarin zich ook
de BSD bevond. Hun voertuigen (niet-militaire), moesten voorzien zijn van een
specifiek Soxmis-kenteken.


het verdrag werd later (tijdens de Koude Oorlog) door de Sovjets
misbruikt voor militaire spionage gericht tegen het Westen. De
Soxmis-voertuigen weken daarvoor van de toegestane route af om bij Westerse
militaire doelen te komen. Zeker tijdens NAVO-manoeuvres waren ze zeer
bedrijvig. Het doel daarvan was, om inlichtingen over operaties en militaire
installaties in het Westen te verzamelen.
Elke dienstplichtige had in de jaren 70 een infokaart, waarop zo’n
Soxmis-kenteken stond en wat men moest doen als zo’n voertuig gezien werd.

In al de garnizoenen, maar zeker in deze
dicht bij het IJzeren Gordijn, bestonden er evacuatieplannen voor de familieleden
van de militairen in geval van een aanval door het Oostblok.
Felicitaties: Dat ons werk in de BSD ook naar waarde geschat werd,
blijkt uit onderstaande nota. Zoiets was slechts mogelijk dank zij de
bekwaamheid en de volle inzet van de miliciens, de BV�s en de onderofficieren,
waarvoor ook thans nog mijn bijzondere dank.

��������������������������� STAF 18 Bn
De: 26 Apr 77
���������������� Kwartier HOUTHULST
� SPB 6������� �����������������������������������������������Nr:. . . .
BELGISCHE STRIJDKRACHTEN IN DUITSLAND����������������������������������������

Aan Comd Det 202 Cie Mat AROLSEN



ONDERWERP:Steun Mat tijdens Oef

Ik houd eraan U en Uw personeel te feliciteren voor de mooie
prestatie die zij geleverd hebben tijden de Oef WINTEX 77.
Praktisch ALLE defecte voertuigen van de deelnemende eenheden
werden, ondanks de grote verscheidenheid van materialen en de
enorme steunafstanden, nog tijdens de oefening hersteld.
Een exemplaar van deze nota zal in Uw persoonlijk dossier
geklasseerd worden.

���������������������������������������������������������� ���������� Getekend
Lt Kol G …..
����������������� �����������������������������Comd




Terug naar boven

Plaatsen waar wij in Duitsland woonden:


Stolberg: ������� W�rzelenerstrasse
54(SPB 2 = Probsteierwald)������������������

huurden wij een klein appartement in een moderne blok ver buiten de
militaire woonkernen. Een groot gedeelte van de huur werd door het leger
terugbetaald. In 1969 moesten we naar een aangrenzende appartementsblok
verhuizen omdat het appartement waar wij in woonden verkocht werd.



��������� Sch�tzenstrasse 37 en nadien Am Kulmberg
(SPB 3)

Siegen woonden we in een zeer groot appartement, in blokken bestemd voor

zeker ogenblik
kreeg mijn vrouw van de DHF opdracht
ons te verhuizen van de Sch�tzenstrasse
naar Am Kulmberg en dit terwijl ik 3 weken op oefening zat in H�ne; ik wist dus
van niets.

de blok waarin wij ons appartement hadden werd nog uitsluitend door �ns bewoond
omdat de officieren van het Bn Bevrijding, die voordien ook in onze blok
woonden, samen met hun Bn naar Belgi� waren teruggekeerd� en alleen voor �ns
die blok verwarmen werd voor het leger te duur.

ik na de oefening thuis kwam in de Sch�tzenstrasse, vond ik er de lege woning.
Op de keukentafel lag een briefje van mijn vrouw met de tekst: Wij zijn
verhuisd en wonen nu Am Kulmberg.Z�
simpel ging dat in die tijd.

image091.jpg��� Sigenkulmberg3.jpg


Spich:������������� An der Polstadt 17 (SPB 14)

Spich woonden we in een moderne appartementsblok ver buiten de militaire
woonkernen. We dienden geen huur te betalen want het appartement was ons ter
beschikking gesteld door de DHF.


Arolsen:��������� Pyrmonterstrasse(SPB 37)

Arolsen woonden we in een moderne appartementsblok ver buiten de militaire
woonkernen. We dienden geen huur te betalen want het appartement was ons ter
beschikking gesteld door de DHF.


Ludenscheid:Stettinerstrasse(SPB 10)

woonden we in een appartement in een blok
bestemd voor Officieren maar ver van de grote militaire woonzones.


verblijf in de BSD (1968 � 1978) bracht op 10 jaar tijd maar liefst 8
verhuizingen teweeg:

-> Stolberg (nov 1968)
Stolberg -> ander appartement in Stolberg zelf (1969)
Stolberg -> Siegen (dec 1970)
Siegen -> ander appartement in Siegen zelf (1972)
Siegen -> Spich (okt 1974)
Spich -> Arolsen (aug 1976)
Arolsen -> L�denscheid (dec 1977)� ik logeerde er eerst een maand in de Mess
L�denscheid -> Belgi� (jun 1978)

���������������������������������� Dat
komt neer op ��n verhuis om de 15 maanden.


gebeurde in de BSD met Militaire camions.



U opmerkingen, mogelijke aanvullingen, verduidelijkingen of aanpassingen voor
de rubriek over de BSD, laat het ons dan weten a.u.b.

vernemen ook graag Uw beoordeling� klik en mail: mailto:[email protected]



Terug naar boven

Leven en
werken als vrouw van een militair in de BSD in de jaren 1960-1970

De meeste van onze vrouwen in de BSD konden geen pensioenrechten
opbouwen, ze zaten ver van familie en vrienden in Belgi� en heel dikwijls
alleen, terwijl hun man her en der in Duitsland op oefening was
(schietoefening, CPX, FTX, Vogelsang, steunperiode, wachtdienst, weekdienst,
permanentie, enz.)

Om als vrouw van een militair in Duitsland te werken moest je uiteraard ook al
een woordje Duits kennen, de eerste 6 maanden lukte dat nog niet goed. Je
inschrijven in het �arbeitsambt� als werkzoekende, zelf ook actief werk zoeken
en als vrouw van een officier kwam er dan nog bij dat de Korpsoverste van je
man de toestemming moest geven voor de job die je wou gaan doen; je werd dus
ook nog eens afgerekend op de status van je man als officier.
Het was toen niet gebruikelijk dat de vrouw van een officier ging werken en zo
ja, moest dat ook een respectabele job zijn. Zelfs om te mogen trouwen diende
door de officier een "Model B" ingediend te worden om er de militaire
toestemming toe te vragen; de status van zijn toekomstige en haar familie werd
dan nagegaan.

Dat mag NU allemaal vreemd klinken, maar zo was het toen.


Vervolgens waren er als officier de vele mutaties naar
een volgend garnizoen (zeker in de logistiek), waardoor je vrouw meteen ook
alweer HAAR job kwijt was want ze verhuisde uiteraard ook mee.
Zo was mijn vrouw in ��n garnizoen reeds na amper 3 maanden haar job in de
Pharma-industrie kwijt en vermits we binnen de week 200 km verhuisden kon ze
haar 3 maanden vooropzegtermijn niet waarmaken en verloor al haar rechten.
Op 21 december telegram uit Brussel waarin me gemeld werd dat ik reeds op 28
december in dat ander garnizoen aan de slag moest. In plaats van de kerstdagen
te vieren en de familie in Belgi� te bezoeken werd het inpakken en verhuis
Op 2 januari vertrok ik aansluitend reeds als detachementcommandant op
steunperiode naar H�hne in het noorden van Duitsland; mijn vrouw was nog niet
eens ingeburgerd in dat nieuw garnizoen, onze woning nog niet eens gans
ingericht en ze zat al 14 dagen alleen.

Je moest je man wel erg graag zien om hem naar Duitsland te willen volgen want
zelf moest je er heel veel voor opgeven.
Maar opnieuw…. voor mezelf zou ik in dezelfde omstandigheden terug dezelfde
keuze maken; in Duitsland had je als militair een veel actiever leven dan in

Troep en onderofficieren bleven veel langer in ��n zelfde garnizoen dan de
officieren; een aantal van hun echtgenotes vond dan soms werk in de kazerne als
BAK (Burger Arbeid Kracht); in die zin waren die kaders er beter aan toe.

Ik ben heel dankbaar dat mijn vrouw me altijd zo is blijven steunen en me
overal is gevolgd en ik besef heel goed wat ze daardoor allemaal heeft moeten
missen, toch heeft ze ook heel graag in Duitsland gewoond. In het Burgerlijk
Wetboek, hoofdstuk VI, wederzijdse rechten en verplichtingen van echtgenoten
stond toen:

Art 212 -De echtgenoten hebben de plicht samen te
wonen.Art 213 -De echtelijke
verblijfplaats wordt door de man vastgesteld.


Pensioenaanvraag bij de DRV (Deutsche Rente
Versicherung), situatie in 2013


je als militair in de BSD samen met je echtgenote en heeft ze in Duitsland
gewerkt (niet als BAK = Burger Arbeidskracht in een Belgische kazerne, maar in
de Duitse burgerij), dan heeft ze ook recht op een Duits pensioen.

De Belgische pensioendienst RVP zorgt voor de aanvraag ervan in Duitsland.
Dat gebeurt automatisch nadat je voor het eerst pensioendocumenten van de RVP
hebt ontvangen en daarop hebt kunnen aangeven dat je ook in Duitsland recht op
een pensioen hebt. De Duitse pensioendienst DRV stuurt daarop rechtstreeks aan
de gerechtigde een lijvig in te vullen bundel (in het Duits en in de taal van
de rechthebbende). Die documenten komen van de
Rentenversicherung Rheinland.- Haubtverwaltung D�sseldorf�.

In Duitsland is de pensioenleeftijd opgetrokken naar 67 jaar (situatie in
2013), met een overgangsmaatregel waardoor dit, afhankelijk van de ouderdom van
de rechthebbende, voor de meesten slechts enkele maanden vertraging betekent.
Dit kan echter ook de uitkering van het Belgisch pensioen (op 65 jaar) enkele
maanden vertragen, vermits de RVP rekening moet houden met al de pensioenen van
man en vrouw en zodra die allemaal gekend zijn pas kan becijferen welk systeem
het voordeligst uitvalt voor de gerechtigden (RVP-gezinspensioen of elk een
afzonderlijk RVP-pensioen als de militair ook nog in de burgerij heeft gewerkt).

De betaling van het Belgisch RVP-pensioen van de echtgenote gebeurt dan
met terugwerkende kracht en de eerste keer meestal met assignatie tot de
rechthebbende kiest voor een bankrekening.

De militair blijft zijn militair pensioen via PDOS ontvangen, maar de
bedrijfsvoorheffing erop wordt verhoogd in verhouding tot het Belgisch
RVP-pensioen dat zijn echtgenote ontvangt. Voor de verhoging van de
bedrijfsvoorheffing op het pensioen van de militair via PDOS wordt geen
rekening gehouden met het Duits pensioen van zijn echtgenote, dat later wel zal
moeten aangegeven worden in de Belgische belastingaangifte, alsook in Duitsland.

Eens het Duits pensioen door de DRV toegekend werd, zorgt niet de �DRV�,
maar de
�Deutsche Post in Berlijn� voor
de maandelijkse stortingen van het Duits pensioen.

Niet de DRV maar de Deutsche Post
volgt het nadien ook verder op; laat wijzigingen aan de gerechtigde weten, enz.

Indien de echtgenote gedurende haar verblijf in Duitsland ook voor ��n of
meer kinderen zorgde (die ook in de BSD verbleven), heeft ze als toenmalige
aanhang van de NATO-strijdkrachten recht op een vergoeding voor de opvoeding
van de kinderen, zogenaamde "Kindererziehungszeiten", zoals ook
Duitse moeders die krijgen. De DRV (Deutsche Rente Versicherung) vraagt daartoe
een attest (bewijs van aanwezigheid als aanhang van de NATO) aan de �
Belgische verbindingsdienst in K�ln�, als de
gerechtigde ook aanspraak maakt op die vergoeding.

Het �Bundescentralamt f�r Steuern in Bonn�
stuurt een �persoonlijk indentificatienummer� dat men op elke correspondentie
inzake steuer (Duitse belasting) moet vermelden.

De gerechtigde is wettelijk verplicht het Duits pensioen aan te geven aan
het Deutsche Steueramt; voor wie in het buitenland woont (bvb in Belgi�) is dit
het �
Finanzamt in Neubrandenburg�; er is
dus in Duitsland belasting op te betalen (percentage ook afhankelijk van de
keuze �Beschr�nkt steuerpflichtig� of �Unbeschr�nkt steuerpflichtig� en
�zusammenveranlagung (splitting)� of niet. Men is niet verplicht een komplete
Steuererkl�rung te sturen, maar elk jaar voor einde mei wel een document
EU/EWR, en een document met het gekozen stelsel, naar het Finanzamt
Neubrandenburg. Info en documenten zie:  

Via het Duitse keuzedocument kan de rechthebbende kiezen om geen komplete
�steuererkl�rung� te moeten indienen en kan men de keuze maken tussen
�beschr�nkt steuerpflichtig of unbeschr�nkt steuerpflichtig en dat laatste met
of zonder Gezamtveranlagung� met de echtgenoot. Keuzedocument zie:
 De Belgische inkomsten van de echtgenoot moeten
naargelang die keuze ook aangegeven worden op het document EU/EWR. Dit document
is te vinden op de website:  Via volgende stappen: Formularcenter – Steuerformulare –
Bescheinigung EU/EWR – Bescheinigung EU/EWR 2016 

Het document EU/EWR moet door de Belgische administratie ondertekend worden).
Het document EU/EWR kan men bekomen in een Duits Finanzamt (bvb in Aken), in
het Duits + andere talen waaronder het Nederlands; maar het kan ook gedownload
worden van de site van het Finanzamt in Brandenburg. Het document heeft 3
luiken; twee ervan zijn bestemd voor het Finanzamt en ��n ervan blijft bij de
belgische administratie. De berekening die het Duitse Finanzamt zal doen staat
op de achterkant van het eerste luik.

Tussen Duitsland en Belgi� bestaat een overeenkomst om dubbelbelasting te
vermijden: Dubbelbelastingsverdrag

Maar de gerechtigde moet het Duits pensioen toch ook nog eens aangeven aan
de Belgische belastingsdienst (in de jaarlijkse aangifte personenbelasting);
hierdoor verhoogt het gezamenlijk inkomen van het Belgisch gezin en door werking
van de huwelijksco�ffici�nt valt men dan mogelijk in een hogere
belastingsschaal waardoor het gezin ook m��r Belgische belasting moet betalen
(en een grotere voorafbetaling op het pensioen); dit wordt door de Belgische
staat echter niet gezien als een dubbele belasting op het Duits inkomen van de
echtgenote, vermits door Belgi� niet rechtstreeks dat Duits inkomen van zijn
echtgenote belast wordt. Tussen Nederland en Duitsland bestaat sinds 2012 een
overeenkomst waarbij in bepaalde gevallen voor inkomsten uit Duitsland, onder
de grens van 15.000 euro, het heffingsrecht enkel toekomt aan Nederland; in
Belgi� is dat niet het geval.

Naargelang de gemaakte keuze, beschr�nkt steuerpflichtiger, unbeschr�nkt
steuerpflichtiger , wel of niet gezamtveranlagung met de echtgenoot en men
Duitsland m��r inkomen heeft dan het �Grundfreibetrag� zal mogelijk ook in
Duitsland belasting moeten betaald worden… en met wat de militair in Belgi�
dan al meer moet betalen blijft er van dat Duits pensioen van zijn echtgenote
mogelijk niets meer over of moet zelfs nog bijgelegd worden. Grundfreibetrag in
2014: 8.354 euro (Duits inkomen + Belgisch inkomen, incl. intrest op
spaargeld). De keuze van het juiste stelsel is dus erg belangrijk… men
raadpleegt best een Duitse Steuerberater.

Indien het slechts over een klein Duits pensioentje gaat en de militair
zelf een hoog inkomen heeft (pensioen + andere inkomsten, zoals intresten op
spaartegoeden; inkomsten van een verhuurd appartement tellen niet mee) kan men
best overwegen het NIET aan te vragen, vanwege al de administratieve last
(jaarlijks terugkomend keuzedocument en document EU/EWR) en de belasting erop,
eventueel naargelang het geval zowel in Duitsland als in Belgi�.

Een �Steuerberater� in een grensgebied in Duitsland (bvb. Aken)
raadplegen, is dus geen slecht idee, reken daarbij op zo�n 150 euro kosten.
Kijk in elk geval eens op:



Terug naar boven

Boeken over
het bezettingsleger en de BSD

Na de tweede Wereldoorlog
namen Belgische eenheden deel aan de bezetting van Duitsland.


Deze periode wordt
gedetailleerd beschreven in het boek �Belgische bezetting in Duitsland�.

In eigen beheer uitgegeven door
Commandant o.r. Walther Rotsaert (252 pagina�s)


Voor m��r info klik op het boek a.u.b.


Nadien ontstond de NATO en
werd West Duitsland een Natopartner.



Bezettingsleger (BBL)


Strijdkrachten in Duitsland (BSD)

� 1995

Persoonsgebonden kalender van feiten, ontwikkelingen en ervaringen gedurende
de vijftig jaar Belgische militaire aanwezigheid in Duitsland

Voor m��r info klik op het boek a.u.b.

� een persoonlijke kroniek
door Commandant o.r. Walther Rotsaert (397 pagina�s)





Wij, BSD�ers !

Het menselijk verhaal van onze
leger-gemeenschap op Duitse bodem

Van Jan Backx(Roularta books, 463 blz)


Bijna zestig jaar lang � vanaf de val van Hitlers derde Rijk
en gedurende heel de Koude Oorlog- leefden er op Duits grondgebied vele
honderdduizenden Belgen, in een kunstmatige wereld: �de BSD�. Dat begrip
dekte �lles wat te maken had met de �Belgische Strijdkrachten in Duitsland�.
Maar het betekende v��l meer dan louter tanks en kanonnen! Er zat een enorm
menselijk verhaal aan vast.



Van NSDAP tot Tweede Wereldoorlog; Nazisme, SA, SD, SS,
Gestapo, Orpo, Sipo: korte info klik hier


Terug naar boven

militaire gedragscode

Men groet een
�hogere in graad� steeds van op enkele passen afstand. De rechterhand wordt daarbij
met en zwaai tot aan de muts, kepie of helm gebracht. De �hogere in graad�
groet daarop terug met het zelfde gebaar.

Indien men zijn
rechter hand niet vrij heeft (omdat men bvb iets draagt), of geen hoofddeksel
draagt, groet men door het hoofd even op te heffen. (NB: sinds het einde der
90-tiger jaren groet men ook met het handgebaar zelfs als men geen hoofddeksel

Wanneer een officier
een groep nadert, of een klas of werkplaats betreedt, roept de eerste die de
officier ziet �ter order�; iedereen staakt zijn bezigheden en gaat meteen in
houding staan tot de officier zegt: �doe verder�.

Wanneer men zich tot
een �hogere in graad� wendt en die �hogere in graad� is een onderofficier
dan stelt men zich voor met zijn eigen graad en naam en zegt: �tot uw dienst

Wanneer men zich tot
een �hogere in graad� wendt en die �hogere in graad� is een officier dan
stelt men zich voor met zijn eigen graad en naam en zegt: �tot uw orders

Wanneer men een
bevel krijgt bevestigt men het begrepen te hebben en te zullen uitvoeren met
�tot uw dienst� indien een onderofficier het bevel gaf, of �tot uw orders�
indien een officier het bevel gaf.

Wanneer men een
gesprek met een officier begint is het gebruikelijk dit te doen
met termen zoals:

respect luitenant�

eerbied kolonel�

In de mess gaat men
niet aan tafel vooraleer de hoogste in graad dit doet.

Wanneer men te laat
in de Mess komt, stelt men zich voor aan de hoogste in graad en vraagt
toestemming om ook aan tafel te mogen gaan.


verschil in graad werd voortdurend fors geaccentueerd. Al zijn die regels ook
thans nog van toepassing, toch worden ze nu wat soepeler toegepast. Vroeger had
elke personeelscategorie (officieren, onderofficieren, troep) een eigen Mess.
Tegenwoordig is er in de meeste garnizoenen een �Mess All Ranks� waar al de
personeelscategorie�n samen aan tafel gaan.


Terug naar boven

De wapens
(soorten eenheden bij de landmacht):

Landmacht is onderverdeeld in diverse �wapens�; dit zijn diverse types van
legereenheden, elk met een specifieke opdracht: infanterie, pantsertroepen,
artillerie, genie, logistiek, om er enkele te noemen.

eind de jaren 90 kon men aan de hand van de spiegels op de kraag (of de
schouderpassanten), heel goed herkennen van welk type eenheid iemand deel
uitmaakte. Op die kleurrijke spiegels was bij de officieren bovendien hun graad


voorbeeld de kleuren van de �Logistiek� gecombineerd met de graad van



prachtige symboliek die helaas, door reorganisatie en afvlakking op het einde
der negentiger jaren, grotendeels verloren ging; alweer zijn we een stukje
traditie kwijt.


Wie ooit zijn dienstplicht deed zal zich
de kleuren van de spiegels op de kraag van zijn Battle Dress (BD)
zeker herinneren want al de kameraden uit een zelfde eenheid droegen ook
diezelfde kleuren.

Bij die kleuren voelde men zich thuis.


In de plaats ervan kwamen de zogenaamde
modernere �pins�, maar deze kunnen de oudgedienden maar weinig bekoren.


Ter herinnering aan weleer, hiernaast de
kleuren van de belangrijkste wapens in de periode 1960-1999 (kleur spiegel en


Op die spiegels kwamen de graden onder de
vorm van sterren en baretten (goudkleurig voor alle officieren;zilverkleurig voor onderofficieren vanaf de
graad van adjudant).


Er werden emblemen toegevoegd, ondermeer
bij Grenadiers, Ardense Jagers, Cyclisten, Carabiniers, Artillerie, Genie en
Medische dienst.

Maar ook emblemen die een bepaalde functie
of brevet
weergaven zoals, IMF (Ingenieur Militaire Fabrikaten), MAB
(Militair Administrateurs Brevet), SBH (Staf Brevet Houder), Generaal,
Krijgsauditeur, Griffier, Muziekkorps, enz.


De graden en de emblemen werden
gecombineerd op de kraagspiegels alsook op de passanten (schouderstukken).



Klik voor




wapenlogo�s van de Landmacht zien er thans als volgt uit:




Terug naar boven

Graden bij de
Landmacht tot 1999:




graden jpg.jpg


onderofficieren vanaf de graad van adjudant en de officieren, droegen hun graad
op spiegels op de kraag (of op schouderpassanten). Troep en onderofficieren tot
de graad van 1e sergeant-majoor, droegen hun graad op de mouw (of op


Terug naar boven

Graden bij de
Landcomponent na 1999





graad wordt nu door alle rangen gedragen op de epauletten (of op ��n passant op
de borst). De kleur van de Service Dress is nu veel donkerder dan het kaki van
v��r 1999.Belgi� kent nu ook de

Klik hier en je surft naar de website
van het Belgisch Leger

Je vindt er de visuele voorstelling van de huidige graden
voor de Lucht- en Zeecomponent


Terug naar boven

Video reportages



Op 16
september 2011 was er een TV-uitzending op de WDR over de Belgische
�bezettingstroepen�, later �stationeringstroepen� in de BSD in Duitsland:
"Pommes, Panzer & Pralinen".
Commandant b.d.
Walther Rotsaert wiens boek over de Belgische bezetting in Duitsland
hierboven vermeld is, komt regelmatig aan het woord in deze uitzending.


Het is mogelijk de reportage te
herbekijken op Youtube via onderstaande links:

Deel 1 ��� (15 minuten)
Deel 2 �� (15 minuten)
Deel 3 �� (15 minuten)



Meerdere filmfragmenten 50
jaar BSD op de website Kamp Vogelsang




Televox uitzendingen uit
1986 over de secundaire scholen in de BSD

Het is mogelijk de reportages te
herbekijken op Youtube via onderstaande links:

Deel1: (9 minuten)

Deel2: ���� (9 minuten)

(5 minuten)



Reportage van het KTRC uit de jaren 60 over de verplichte
legerdienst. Met dank aan Paul Van

Het is mogelijk de reportages te herbekijken op Youtube via onderstaande

(14 minuten)

Deel2: (13 minuten)



Reportage over laatste schot met een Leopard tank in H�hne.

Het is mogelijk de reportages te
herbekijken op Youtube via onderstaande links:




Terug naar boven

Tenues van toen:







Service Dress (met linnen gordel).
Met kaki hemd en das, kaki kousen, bruine schoenen, bruine lederen
handschoenen en stick.

Tot in 1973 droegen officieren op de
Service Dress ook een lederen gordel met schouderriem (baudrier) i.p.v. de
linnen gordel.Na een enqu�te bij de
officieren over hoe hun tenue er in de toekomst moest uitzien, werd de
baudrier in 1973 afgeschaft.








Battle Dress(links)

BD: met kaki hemd en kaki das, kaki
kousen, bruine schoenen (als uitgangskledij) Kon ook met gevercoteerde
gordel, getten en zwarte botinnen (als werkkledij)

Service Dress (midden)���������

Met kaki hemd en das, kaki kousen, bruine
schoenen en bruine handschoenen (vanaf 1973 zonder linnen of lederen gordel)


Bleek beige Zomerkledij (rechts)

Met bleek beige hemd, licht bruine das,
beige kousen en bruine schoenen. Steeds zonder gordel.

Service Dress als ceremonie kledij met
wit hemd, zwarte das, zwarte schoenen, zwarte kousen, zwarte gestoffeerde gordel,
gouden epauletten, kepie en witte handschoenen.

In deze tenue moest men zich bij mutatie naar een nieuwe eenheid aan zijn
nieuwe chef en het personeel voorstellen.

Deze kledij werd ook gedragen de dag van
een bevordering, de spiegels op de kraag voorzien van de nieuwe graad.

Ook als je als officier zetelde in de
Krijgsraad werd deze tenue gedragen maar dan tevens voorzien van de











laarsjes met sporen, als symbool dat de
transporttroepen uit de huidige logistiek vroeger te paard reden

Werkkledij met gordel en zwarte bottinnen (linnen

Hemdvest en linnen broek, gordel, bottinnen en getten
(later vervangen door laarzen en geen getten meer).



In een maintenance eenheid beschikte iedereen over een
werkpak; ook de officieren.


Gala tenue (ook blauwe tenue genoemd). In
het Belgisch leger enkel gedragen door officieren.

Met zwarte of gouden epauletten,
eretekens en korte zwarte laarsjes met sporen.
De blauwe streep op
de broek verwijst naar de logistiek













Smokebroek, smokevest met kap, laarzen, gordel, helm, wapen







Terug naar boven

naar websites van ex BSD eenheden:


Deze rubriek ismoeilijk �up to date� te houden; er
verdwijnen helaas regelmatig websites; er komen er af en toe ook nieuwe bij.

Belevenissen van ex-Siegenaars ��Ex-Siegenaars
kunnen hun eigen belevenissen hier laten inlassen� stuur een email a.u.b.


Verbroedering 1JP

Spich 1Cy


(probsteierwald) Wikipedia Duits


5. Linieregiment

Museum BSD

Ver. Oprustgest. Offrn

Kamp Vogelsang

9 Linieregiment

Jagers te Paard: + kazerens in BSD

Belgen in L�

4Regiment Lansiers

Terug naar boven




naar startpagina van de complete website









European Graduates

Graduates from Belgium

Kris Demeyere


Kris Demeyere

Bruges Area, Belgium

Kris Demol

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Maintenance & Engineering Manager at TNT Express

Sporthumaniora Wemmel   1975 — 1976

TNT Express   August 2013 – Present
TNT Express   May 2012 – July 2013
Demol Consultancy   October 2010 – May 2012
DHL   April 2002 – October 2010
DHL Aviation N.V.   1994 – 2002
DHL Aviation   April 1992 – September 1998
DHL Aviation   April 1990 – April 1992
DHL Aviation   September 1988 – April 1990
DHL Aviation   September 1987 – September 1988
DHL Aviation   October 1985 – September 1987

Warehouse Management, Freight, Procurement, Air Freight, Management, Export, 3PL, Leadership, Airports, Purchasing, Warehousing, Aircraft, Key Performance…, Change Management, Supply Chain, Operations Management, Negotiation, International Sales, Government, Contract Negotiation, Supply Chain…, Materials Management, Import, Airlines, International Logistics, Transportation…, Global Sourcing, Logistics, Fleet Management, Problem Solving, Customer Service, Logistics Management, Transportation, Union Negotiations, Supply Chain Management, Process Improvement, Freight Forwarding, Maintenance & Repair, Aviation, IATA, Continuous Improvement, Reverse Logistics, Customs Regulations, Shipping

Kris Demol

Brussels Area, Belgium
Global Network Equiment Manager at DHL Aviation
Aviation & Aerospace

Kris Deneckere

Gent Area, Belgium
Architecture & Planning

Kris Denolf


Kris Denys


Kris Denys

Antwerp Area, Belgium
medewerker at FOPEM
Education Management

Kris Depoorter


Kris Depoorter


Kris Depotter

Bruges Area, Belgium
reconnective healing practitioner at My company
Professional Training & Coaching

Kris Depotter

Bruges Area, Belgium
bediende at iwva
Logistics and Supply Chain

Kris Deprince

Bruges Area, Belgium
Events Services
A-Style Belgium   June 2015 – Present
kinder en jeugdschoenen Passo   February 2014 – Present
Self-employed   April 2000 – Present

Kris Derveaux


Kris Deschepper

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Independent Construction Professional

Kris Deschepper

Antwerp Area, Belgium
SPLINTER   July 1997 – Present

Interior Architecture, Graphic Design, Interior Design

Kris Desmedt

Brussels Area, Belgium
Information Technology and Services

Business Process, Validation, Analysis, Change Management, Requirements Analysis, ITIL, Pharmaceutical Industry, Business Analysis, Agile Methodologies, Functional Analysis, Quality Center, Scrum, Banking, User Acceptance Testing

Kris Desmedt

Bruges Area, Belgium
Verpleegkundige bij Ter Duinen
Hospital & Health Care

Kris Desmet


Kris Desmet

Bruges Area, Belgium
Self-employed   March 2004 – Present

Health Insurance, Insurance, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Word, Customer Service, Microsoft Excel, Property & Casualty…

Kris Desmet

Bruges Area, Belgium
vertegenwoordiger bij ranson nv
Food Production

Kris Devos

Brussels Area, Belgium
Capital Markets

Fixed Income, Equities, Trading, DCM, FX Options, Financial Markets, Financial Risk, Bloomberg, Capital Markets, Loan Origination, Structured Products, Banking, Bonds, Interest Rate…, Structured Finance, Investment Banking, Credit Derivatives, Financial Structuring, Credit Risk, Corporate Finance, Syndicate, Portfolio Management, Derivatives, Securitization, Emerging Markets

Kris Devos

Bruges Area, Belgium
Operational Planner at Belgacom

KIHWV   1985 — 1989

Kris Devriendt

Brussels Area, Belgium
Projectleider Bouw bij Colruyt Group

Sint-Lucas Brussel   1999 — 2004
Master of Architecture (M.Arch.), Architectuur (Architecture)

Sint-Niklaas-Instituut   1982 — 1998

Colruyt Group   January 2009 – Present
Art & Build   January 2008 – December 2008
BAR – Buro voor ARchitectuur   July 2006 – December 2007
Ravenstijn & Partners   July 2005 – June 2006
ABC-Architecten   January 2005 – June 2005

Kris Dewachter

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Information Technology and Services

E-commerce, Requirements Analysis, HTML, Subversion, Intershop, CMS, Software Development, Agile Project Management, Certified Scrum Master…, Agile Methodologies, Agile, Email Marketing, XML, E-business, Business Analysis, Web Analytics, SEO, Web Services, Social Media, Software Project…, B2C, Online Sales, Scrum, B2B, AJAX, Web Development, Java, Online Marketing, prince2, Hybris, hybris

Kris Dewaele

Hotelschool Ter Groene poorte / Brugge
Afgestudeerd, Beroeps

Diverse locatie’s   January 1990 – Present

Kris Dewaele

Bruges Area, Belgium
Bediende bij VOF Decoene
Hospital & Health Care

Kris Deweerdt

Bruges Area, Belgium
Qc raw materials & finished products bij McBride

Sint-vincentiuscollege Ieper

Kris Deweerdt


Kris Dewilde


Kris Dewinter, CFA

Brussels Area, Belgium
Investment Banking

Due Diligence, Mergers & Acquisitions, Private Equity, Management Accounting, Valuation, IFRS, Restructuring, Financial Modeling, Investment Management, M&A experience, Negotiation, Capital Markets, Investments, Financial Structuring, Strategy, Corporate Finance

Kris Dewinter, CFA


Kris Dewitte

Gent Area, Belgium
photographe de plateau
Fine Art
Binger Filmlab   2002 – 2014
The Hotel Brussels   2010 – 2010
Hooverphonic   2006 – 2008

Kris Dewitte


Kris Dewitte


Kris Dhondt

Bruges Area, Belgium
Manager Terminals, Ports & Sales Support at Stora Enso
Paper & Forest Products

Sint Jozef Instituut / Torhout   1981 — 1988
Biology/Biological Sciences, General

Stora Enso Management Programme (SEMP 29)

Stora Enso   January 2012 – Present
Stora Enso   January 2010 – December 2011
Stora Enso   January 2006 – December 2009
Stora Enso   February 2002 – December 2005
Kathy Chocolaterie NV   January 2001 – January 2002
PSA HNN   March 2000 – December 2000

Ports, International Logistics, International Business, Supply Chain, International Business…, Negotiation, Warehousing, Shipping, International Business…, International Sales, Continuous Improvement, International Project…, Logistics, Logistics Management, Transportation, Supply Chain Management

Kris Dhondt


Kris Dhondt


Kris Dhondt

Gent Area, Belgium
Zelfstandig elektricien en leerkracht
Self-employed   January 2005 – Present
Stad Antwerpen   December 1995 – December 2006

Kris Dhondt

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Gepensioneerde bij Geen
Information Technology and Services

Kris Didden

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Adjunctbibliothecaris bij Institute of Tropical Medicine

Kris Didden


Kris Diels

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Accountant / Belastingconsulent
Financial Services

IAB accountant en belastingconsulent   2003 — 2007

Bachelor Accountancy – Fiscaliteit   1998 — 2001

Lagere school


Van der Steen, Diels, Van Gysel consultants   April 2012 – Present
VHG   October 2007 – March 2012
BDO   August 2001 – September 2007

Financial Accounting, Corporate Finance, Tax Law, Internal Controls, VAT, Accounting, Corporate Tax, Income Tax, Auditing, Financial Reporting, Tax, Financial Analysis

Kris Diels

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Project Engineer Capital Projects at Genzyme, a Sanofi company
Genzyme, a Sanofi company   June 2015 – Present
Genzyme   July 2009 – May 2015
Genzyme   2007 – July 2009
Genzyme   July 2002 – 2007
Belgonucleaire   April 1999 – June 2002
Belgonucleaire   April 1994 – April 1999
Belgonucleaire   April 1989 – April 1994

Security, Facilities Management, GMP, Catering, Biotechnology, CAPA, Project Engineering

Kris Diels

Antwerp Area, Belgium

Kris Diels

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Arbeider reactor bij Campine nv
Mining & Metals

Kris Dierick

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Belfius Regio Tienen   January 2009 – Present

Kris Dierick

Bruges Area, Belgium
manager at intertapis
intertapis   September 2002 – Present

Customer Service, Word, Excel, Microsoft Excel, Customer Relations, Microsoft Office

Kris Dietvorst

Antwerp Area, Belgium
GON begeleider / auticoach
Mental Health Care

Kris Dillemans

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Information Technology and Services

Kris Dillemans

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Owner, MAIN

Kris Dimitriadis

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Photographer / Owner at PSG Photostudio
PSG Photostudio   December 2012 – Present
PSG – publishing house   February 2007 – December 2012

Digital Photography, Lightroom, Commercial Photography, Photography

Kris Dimitriadis

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Independent Photography Professional

Kris Dirkx

Brussels Area, Belgium
Financial Services

Payment Services, Acquiring, Product Management, Smart Cards, E-payments, Credit Cards, Credit Card Fraud, Fraud, German (basic), NFC, Debit Cards, Operational Risk…, Payments, Anti Money Laundering, Security, Training Delivery, Cards, Payment Cards, Wallets, Payment Gateways, Electronic Payments, French, PCI DSS, EMV, English, Transaction Processing, Fraud Detection, payment cards business, Mobile Payments, Internet Banking, International Sales, Product Management…, Payment Card Processing, Risk Management, Dutch, Financial Risk, AML, Payment Industry, Merchant Services, Online Fraud

Kris Dirkx

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Fine Art

GroepT Leuven
Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)

Kunstschool Genk

KD Artwork   May 2006 – Present

Editing, Java, C, Photoshop, Customer Service, Microsoft Word, Research, PowerPoint, HTML, Windows, Outlook, C++, Strategic Planning, Microsoft Office, Negotiation, Budgets, Teaching, Public Speaking, Microsoft Excel, English

Kris Dobbelaere

Bruges Area, Belgium
VAN HOOL   November 1994 – Present
Transamerica   September 1994 – November 1994
Transamerica   January 1994 – November 1994
Transamerica   September 1992 – January 1994
Transamerica   January 1992 – September 1992

Automotive Aftermarket, Automobile, Automotive, Vehicles

Kris Dobbelaere


Kris Dobbelaere

Bruges Area, Belgium
logistiek bij l. nuytinck
Medical Practice

Kris Dockx

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Logistics and Supply Chain

Technical Presentations, Change Management, German, Optimization, Supply Chain…, Product Management, Production Planning, Business Strategy, Supply Chain, Demand Planning, Supply Chain Management, French, Logistics, English, Operations Management, Supply Chain Consulting

Kris Donders

Antwerp Area, Belgium

Kris Douchy

Bruges Area, Belgium
Applicatiebeheerder at AZ Delta
Hospital & Health Care

VHTI KORTRIJK   1988 — 1989

AZ Delta   February 1993 – Present

Hospitals, HL7, Healthcare Information…, Informatics, Healthcare

Kris Drieghe

Gent Area, Belgium
zaakvoerder bij Holarchitecten
Architecture & Planning

Syntra   2010 — 2010
energiedeskundige type A

Sint-Lucas Architectuur – Hogeschool voor Wetenschap & Kunst   2003 — 2008
Master of Architecture (M.Arch.), Architecture

Holarchitecten   October 2012 – Present
Architectenstudio   September 2009 – October 2012
mebumar   October 2008 – September 2009

Design Research, Concept Design, Photoshop, Rendering, Mixed-use, Architectural Design, Sustainable Design, 3D Visualization, ArchiCAD, SketchUp, Architecture, BIM, AutoCAD Architecture, CAD, AutoCAD, Construction Drawings

Kris Drieghe


Kris Dries

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Koetswerk bij Terberg Specials Belgium NV

Kris Driesen

Antwerp Area, Belgium

cevora   2003 — 2004
beroepsopleiding, calculator

hogeschool Sint Lukas Brussel   1999 — 2002
Bachelor’s degree, bouwkunde, Bachelor’s degree

PENTA Expertise & Consult nv   April 2014 – Present
Bekaert Building Company   February 2013 – April 2014
Democo   December 2007 – February 2013
arthur moens nv   February 2004 – December 2007
Herbosch-Kiere N.V.   August 2002 – August 2003

vca attest, AutoCAD, SketchUp, Lotus Notes, MS Project, bouwoffice

Kris Driesen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Leerkracht Economie en Wiskunde bij Sjb Zonhoven
Primary/Secondary Education

U-Antwerpen   1995 — 1996
Geaggregeerde voor het onderwijs

TEW, U-Hasselt   1989 — 1993
Master’s degree, Applied Economics

Sjb Zonhoven   January 1997 – Present
Gecotec   February 1993 – December 1996

Kris Driesen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
maintenance technician bij Avery Dennison

Kris Driesen

Wetteren, Vlaanderen, Belgium
Management Assistant at PTS NV
Medical Devices
PTS NV   February 2012 – Present

Microsoft Excel, microsoft, Microsoft Office, Strategic Planning, Microsoft Publisher, Sales, PowerPoint, power, Customer Service, Public Speaking, microso, Leadership, Microsoft Word, micro, Social Media

Kris Driesen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Technieker bij Maes nv

Kris Dubois

Antwerp Area, Belgium
facility manager at Vlaamse Opera
Performing Arts
Vlaamse Opera   December 2010 – Present

Kris Ducatteeuw

Antwerp Area, Belgium
notaris bij notarisassocatie F Van Cauwenbergh & K Ducatteeuw

lager school Bavikhove

middelbaar onderwijs
Latijn Grieks

licentiaat in de rechten en in het notariaat

Notariaat   2002 – Present
notarisassocatie F Van Cauwenbergh & K Ducatteeuw   2002 – Present

Kris Ducatteeuw


Kris Duchateau


Kris Duchateau

Hasselt, Vlaanderen, Belgium
Engineer bij BKM
Information Technology and Services

Technisch Instituut Sint Lodewijk

BKM   March 2001 – Present
Veldeman   March 1999 – March 2001
Carglass®   April 1991 – March 1999

TCP/IP, VoIP, Java, Pre-sales, Microsoft Office, Telecommunications, Troubleshooting, Windows, Networking, Cloud Computing

Kris Dumon

Bruges Area, Belgium
Trends Researcher, Denim Jedi, Innovator & Father
Apparel & Fashion

FOTOHUIS Stedelijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten Brugge DKO   2010 — 2014

PTI & VTI   1991 — 1996
technical, Textile, cad-cam, …

Avery Dennison   June 2015 – Present
Avery Dennison   April 2013 – Present
Deweer Gallery   2002 – Present
Avery Dennison   January 2014 – June 2015
Avery Dennison   September 2012 – January 2014
Avery Dennison   February 2012 – September 2012
VF Corporation   July 2010 – December 2011
Du-Kri Art & Design   2000 – December 2010
VF Corporation   January 2008 – July 2010
VF Europe   November 2004 – January 2008

International Business, Product Management, Sourcing, Retail, Menswear, Creative Development, Denim, Product Sourcing, Fashion, Merchandising, New Business Development, Textile Industry, Bags, Production Management, Buying, Technical Design, Apparel, Knitwear, German, Trend Research, Styling, Fit, Textiles, Production, Visual Merchandising, French, Tech Packs, Fashion Retail, Vendor Relations, Italian, Private Label, Costing, Fitting, English, Trend Analysis, Negotiation, Outerwear, Tops, Fashion Design, Sewing, Global Sourcing, Creative Sourcing, Purchasing, Brand Development, Trend, Product Development, Manufacturing, Luxury Goods, Wovens, Garment Construction

Kris Dumon

Gent Area, Belgium
Process and Automation Expert at Nippon Shokubai Europe

M+W   2013 — 2013
Functional Safety

PVI Antwerpen
PA Niveau II, Prevention

PTI St. Goddelieve
A2 Industriële Scheikunde, Chemistry

Nippon Shokubai Europe   August 2012 – Present
Nippon Shokubai Europe N.V.   March 2009 – July 2012
BASF Antwerpen   January 1992 – July 2000

Risk Analysis, Distillation, Commissioning, HAZOP, Chemistry, HAZOP Study, Process Engineering, Process Safety, Crystallization, Process Optimization, Safety Management…, DCS, Functional Safety, Chemical Engineering

Kris Dupont

Antwerp Area, Belgium
assistent gerant bij Van Marcke

Kris Dupont


Kris Dupont

Antwerp Area, Belgium
operator at Monsanto

Kris Dupont

Antwerp Area, Belgium
operator at monsanto
monsanto   December 1990 – Present

Kris Duynslager

Gent Area, Belgium
Business Controller at Kinepolis

EHSAL   1994 — 1999


Kinepolis   December 2014 – Present
Kinepolis   July 2010 – November 2014
Belgian Post Group   November 1999 – June 2010

Controlling, Financial Reporting, Financial Control, Analysis, Budgets, Financial Forecasting, IFRS, Financial Management, Budgeting, Financial Audits, Internal Audit, Forecasting, Financial Analysis, Managerial Finance, Management

Kris Dyselinck


Kris E


Kris Eeckhout

Brussels Area, Belgium
Proximus   September 2010 – Present
Proximus   October 2008 – September 2010
Proximus   February 2007 – October 2008
Umicore   October 1999 – January 2007
Umicore   March 1996 – September 1999

Integration, SAP, Spend Analysis, Strategic Sourcing, Strategy, Procurement, Program Management, E-procurement, Management, Outsourcing, Negotiation, Purchasing, Supply Chain, Purchase Management, RFQ, Sourcing, Supplier Negotiation, Telecommunications, Supply Chain Management, eSourcing, Supply Management, Sourcing & Procurement, Global Sourcing

Kris Eeckhout


Kris Eeckhout

Gent Area, Belgium
electrtechnicus bij Stad Gent
Government Administration

Kris Elbers


Kris Embrechts

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Prepress medewerker bij Albe De Coker NV

Grafoc – typo/drukafwerking   2014 — 2014

Flex-itraining Grafische – Bedrijfspublicaties ontwerpen   2013 — 2013

Flex-itraining Grafische – E-zines ontwerpen   2013 — 2013

Technicum, Antwerpen   1980 — 1983

Albe De Coker NV   November 2014 – Present
Print and Display   May 2003 – September 2012
Albatros-printing   April 2000 – April 2003
Drukkerij De Beurs   April 1994 – April 2000
Drukkerij Dirix-Verresen   January 1983 – March 1994

Apogee Prepress…, FTP software, Windows, Digital Photography, Microsoft Office, Prepress allrounder, Adobe Creative Suite, Flightcheck, Mac OS X, internet, Pre-press Experience, Adobe Acrobat, Offset Printing, Digital Printing, Color Management, Desktop Publishing, Enfocus Pitstop, Adobe Muse, Screen Printing

Kris Embrechts

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Boekhouder bij Aannemingsbedrijf L.Janssens
Aannemingsbedrijf L.Janssens   February 2014 – July 2014
Belgian Oil Service   May 2001 – November 2013
Belgian New Fruit Wharf   January 1990 – May 2001

Windows Server, Network Administration, Active Directory, Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable, Access, Payroll, Bookkeeping, Microsoft Office, Invoicing, System Administration, Software Documentation

Kris Engelen

Gent Area, Belgium
Information Technology and Services

Kris Engelen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Controle laborant bij Tessenderlo Group

Technisch onderwijs Chemie (A2)
Technisch onderwijs Chemie (A2), Chemie/Scheikunde (Chemistry)

Tessenderlo Group   December 1988 – Present
Tessenderlo Group   2012 – 2013


Kris Engelen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Zaakvoerder bij Insurance & Finance Office

Kris Engelen

Schoten, Vlaanderen, Belgium
bediende bij ExxonMobil
Oil & Energy
ExxonMobil   August 1976 – Present

Kris Engels

Brussels Area, Belgium
Sectiechef inside network operations at Belgacom


Belgacom   September 2008 – Present
AIM Productions   January 2008 – June 2008

Telecommunications, Oracle, WinForms, JavaScript, C++, .NET, VBScript, IP, Databases, C#, Unix, VB.NET, ASP.NET, Windows Services, Teradata, Microsoft Reporting…, Software Development, Mobile Devices

Kris Engels


Kris Engels

Gent Area, Belgium
monteur bij celcio

Kris Engels

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Brandweercommandant bij Gemeente Bornem
Public Safety

Kris Erard

Gent Area, Belgium
Consumer Goods

Brand Management, Marketing Communications, Strategy, Supply Chain Management, Key Account Management, B2B, Management Consulting, Product Management, International Business, FMCG, Management

Kris Erauw

Brussels Area, Belgium
Cohead Talent Information Management & Tools at BNP Paribas Fortis
BNP Paribas Fortis   May 2013 – Present
BNP Paribas Fortis   April 2010 – April 2013
BNP Paribas Fortis   April 2010 – July 2010
BNP Paribas Fortis   May 2009 – September 2009

Assessment Center, Talent Management, HR Consulting, Employer Branding, Restructuring, HR Policies, Recruiting, HRIS, Coaching, Change Management, Organizational…, HR Project Management, Personnel Management, Human Resources, Management Consulting

Kris Everaert

Gent Area, Belgium
Real Estate

Kris Feyaerts


Kris Feyaerts

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Pilot at Noordzee Helikopters Vlaanderen
Noordzee Helikopters Vlaanderen   August 2003 – Present
Belgian Air Ambulance   2002 – 2003
Heli Shuttle   2001 – 2003
EG Heliservice   1998 – 2001
Helico   1995 – 1998
Eurofly bvba   1994 – 1995

Airports, Flight Safety, Helicopters, Aircraft, Commercial Aviation, Aircraft Maintenance, Flights, Human Factors, Aviation, Airworthiness, Avionics

Kris Flameng

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Independent Music Professional

Kris Flameng


Kris Flameng

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Muziekpedagoog & therapeut bij Peperbus vzw
Education Management

Kris Fleurinck

Leuven, Vlaanderen, Belgium
Higher Education

Solaris, Shell Scripting, HP, Networking, ICT, MySQL, Virtualization, Linux, HP Openview, HP-UX, Firewalls, Windows 7, Nagios, Security, Operating Systems, ITIL, VMware, Unix, IT Service Management, Windows XP, Cacti

Kris Fleurinck

Information Technology and Services

Kris Foesters

Brussels Area, Belgium
Information Technology and Services

Network Security, Channel, Cisco Technologies, Wireless, Security, Sales, Channel Partners, Routing, Cloud Computing, Sales Operations, Solution Selling, Data Center, Networking, Virtualization, Managed Services, Firewalls

Kris Foesters

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Computer & Network Security

Kris Foubert

Gent Area, Belgium

Kris Francken

Antwerp Area, Belgium

Kris Gantois

Bruges Area, Belgium
Student aan de/het Ter groene poorte

KULAK   2013 — 2016

Ter groene poorte   2013 — 2016

Kris Geelen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
gepensioneerd militair dokter bij belgische luchtmacht
Medical Practice

Kris Geens

Leuven, Vlaanderen, Belgium
Senior PHP developer
Information Technology and Services
ONE Agency (AUSY Belgium)   June 2015 – Present

MySQL, Front-end, XHTML, Laravel, Database Design, Memcached, REST, E-commerce, LAMP, Nginx, Symfony, Joomla, PostgreSQL, Test Driven Development, AJAX, Zend Framework, MVC, Web Applications, Bash, Open Source, Git, HTML/XML, JSON, Drupal, Linux server…, Web Development, HTML 5, PHP Frameworks, SOAP, HTML5, CSS, JavaScript, jQuery, Apache, XML, Advanced CSS, ColdFusion, Solr, CakePHP, PHP, Subversion

Kris Geens

Heusden-Zolder, Vlaanderen, Belgium
interactive crossmedia creator
Education Management

Provinciaal Hoger Instituut voor Kunstonderwijs   1986 — 1991
Master of Arts (M.A.), Publiciteit – Grafisch Design

Sint-Augustinus-Instituut, Bree   1980 — 1986

CVO De Verdieping   September 2001 – Present
projecten in crossmedia, design, video, advertising   July 1991 – Present

Illustrator, Photography, Graphics, Photoshop, Marketing Communications, Director, Video Editing, Premiere Pro, New Media, Video Production, Final Cut Pro, Graphic Design, InDesign, Advertising, Social Media, After Effects, Adobe Creative Suite

Kris Geeraerts


Kris Geeroms


SAP BI, SAP R/3, Business Strategy, Change Management, PMP, Business Analysis, Outsourcing, PRINCE2, CRM, IT Management, Integration, Project Management, Business Intelligence, Data Migration, Pharmaceutical Industry, Data Warehousing, Data Management, Project Planning, Business Process, IT Strategy, Business Objects, SAP, SAP BW, IT Service Management, Telecommunications, Data Modeling, ERP, Project Portfolio…, ITIL, Vendor Management, Cross-functional Team…, Quality Assurance, PMO, Software Project…, Program Management, Requirements Analysis, ETL, Management, Process Improvement, Business Process…, Strategy

Kris Geerts

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Computer Software

MySQL, Customer Relations, ERP, IT Service Management, Omnis, Business Intelligence, Cloud Computing, jQuery, Software Development, XML, SQL, Problem Solving, Cake php, HTML, ITIL, Windows Server, Active Directory, SOA, Microsoft SQL Server, Visual Studio, Web Services, Doctrine, netbeans, Excel, Linux, ICT, Windows, VMware ESX, Consultancy, Web Development, PHP, Symfony, JavaScript, CSS, web ser, web, SQL Server, Microsoft Office, Apache, CodeIgniter, AJAX Frameworks, Requirements Analysis, Architecture, Architectures, UML, Software Project…, Databases, Integration

Kris Geldof

Bruges Area, Belgium
technical sales mngr bij GB Boucherie NV
Mechanical or Industrial Engineering

KIH Oostende   1987 — 1991
Industrieel Ingenieur, Electromechanical Engineering

Latijns-Wiskunde St Aloysiuscollege Diksmuide   1981 — 1987
( middelbaar onderwijs), Latin Language and Literature + Mathematics

lagere school klerken + college diksmuide

GB Boucherie NV   May 1996 – Present
GB Boucherie NV   August 1991 – April 1996

Negotiation, Manufacturing, Microsoft Word, Account Management, Project Management, Sales, New Business Development, Product Development, Engineering, Key Account Management, Microsoft Office, PowerPoint, Strategic Planning, Sales Management, Microsoft Excel

Kris Geluykens

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Public Relations and Communications

Dutch, Strategic Communications, Event Management, Training

Kris Geudens

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Owner, Garage Ham Motors

Kris Geukens

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Available again for a new mission as Finance Mgr / Controller
Management Consulting

Hoger Instituut Demergouw Diest   1988 — 1991
Bachelor degree, Accounting

OLV Visitatie Leopoldsburg

Owner Gramax Consulting bvba   August 2011 – Present
CR Bard Benelux   May 2015 – September 2015
MBA Belgium & Luxembourg ( Ex Cormed NV)   November 2014 – July 2015
CR Bard Benelux   March 2014 – September 2014
ManpowerGroup Solutions Belgium   December 2013 – March 2014
CR Bard Benelux   January 2013 – November 2013
Mondelēz Int. (Kraft Foods)   June 2012 – January 2013
Certis Europe   August 2011 – April 2012
Natuzzi   November 2008 – July 2010
Fortis Commercial Finance Belgium   December 2007 – November 2008

Cash Management, Budget Process, Forecasting, Accounting, ERP, Auditing, Business Objects, Accounts Payable, SAP, Hyperion HFM, Financial Controlling, Payroll Analysis, French, Microsoft Excel, JD Edwards, Affiliate Management, Management Accounting, Sarbanes-Oxley, Internal Controls, Fixed Asset Management, Accounts Receivable, Transition Management, Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Treasury Management, Hyperion Enterprise, Balance Sheet Review, Netting, Factoring, Statutory Accounting, User Acceptance Testing, KPI Reports, US GAAP, Intercompany Accounts, English, German, Managerial Finance, Financial Reporting, Cash Flow Forecasting

Kris Geukens

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Information Technology and Services
Exertum Belgium   September 2014 – Present
Atos   March 2013 – August 2014
Atos Belux   June 2007 – February 2013
Atos   December 2005 – May 2007
BASE Company   September 1998 – August 2005
Mobistar   June 1996 – August 1998

Integration, Enterprise Architecture, PRINCE2, PMO, Service Delivery, Leadership, SLA, Service Desk, Business Transformation, Governance, Data Center, Service Management, Management, Pre-sales, Mobile Devices, IT Strategy, Telecommunications, Managed Services, Project Portfolio…, ICT, IT Outsourcing, ITIL, IT Operations, Solution Architecture, Incident Management, IT Service Management, Project Delivery, Business Process, Outsourcing, Sla, IT Management, Offshoring, Infrastructure

Kris Geusens

Antwerp Area, Belgium

QoS, Firewalls, LAN-WAN, Computer Network…, VoIP, TCP/IP, Routers, WAN, Ethernet, Juniper, BGP, Cisco Technologies, Network Architecture, IP, Unified Communications, Data Center, Routing, Network Security, VPN, Switches, Telecommunications, Transmission Systems, Network Design

Kris Geusens

Brussels Area, Belgium
Operations Manager at Jetair
Leisure, Travel & Tourism
Jetair   November 1999 – Present

Tourism, Vacation, Incentive Travel, Sustainable Tourism, English, Tour Operators, Travel Management, Leisure, Hotels, Leisure Travel, Online Travel

Kris Gevaert

Gent Area, Belgium
Information Technology and Services

Egon Hibo   1992 — 1996
A1 – Bachelor, Accountancy / Fiscaliteit





ASCI   June 2000 – Present
Andersen Consulting -> Fiat Gesco   September 1996 – June 2000
Concordia   1996 – 1996

JavaScript, Windows, Web Services, Operating Systems, SQL, Visual Studio, Databases, Software Engineering, MySQL, HTML, XML, C#

Kris Gevaert

Information Technology and Services

Microsoft SQL Server

Kris Gevaert

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Webmeester at K.U.Leuven

Kris Gevers

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Independent Arts and Crafts Professional

Kris Geysen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Catalograaf oude drukken bij Museum PlantinMoretus
Museums and Institutions

Master, Klassieke Filologie

Spijker Hoogstraten

Museum Plantin-Moretus   2012 – Present
Red Star Line Museum   2009 – 2012
Publieksbeleid Musea stad Antwerpen   2000 – 2012
Jeugdbeweging KSJ   1995 – 2000

Cultural Heritage, Museum Collections, Curating, Museum Education, Editing, Research, Nonprofits, Museums, History

Kris Geyssens

Antwerp Area, Belgium
algemeen medewerker bij UZ Leuven
Medical Practice

Kris Geyssens

Gent Area, Belgium
Account Manager
Ge-Ka Supplies   May 2015 – Present
Unico Inks   November 2012 – March 2015
Publivenor   December 2006 – October 2012
Verhamme Textieldruk   September 1994 – November 2006

Kris Geyssens


Kris Gielen

Brussels Area, Belgium
Learning Solutions Architect at HewlettPackard
Information Technology and Services

Project Management, Team Leadership, IT Service Management, Program Management, Cloud Computing, Management, CRM, SharePoint, Marketing, Change Management, Strategy, IT Management, ITIL, Leadership, Project Portfolio…, Outsourcing, Business Intelligence, Business Process, Training, Databases, Managed Services, Business Analysis, Business Process…

Kris Gielen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
verpleegkundige bij UZ Leuven
Medical Practice

Kris Gielen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Writing and Editing

Kris Gielen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
directeur bij basisschool (W)Onderwijs
Education Management
basisschool (W)Onderwijs   September 2011 – Present

Higher Education, Management, Teaching, Teacher Training, Leadership Development, Public Speaking, Team Building, Microsoft Office, Change Management, Coaching

Kris Gielen

Lummen, Vlaanderen, Belgium
Distributor Pandora Belgium/Luxemburg
Luxury Goods & Jewelry

Kris Gielis

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Trajectbegeleider bij Vzw de wiekslag
Nonprofit Organization Management

Graduaatsopleiding Orthopedagogie   2008 — 2012
gegradueerde in de orthopedagogie, orthopedagogie

Vzw de wiekslag   March 2011 – Present

Kris Gielis

Antwerp Area, Belgium
productieverantwoordelijke bij Drytop
Food Production

Kris Gijbels

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Program Manager TDM and P&L DEME
Civil Engineering


Industrieel Ingenieur
Master’s degree, Elektro – Mechanica

St Barbara

DEME Group   September 2013 – Present
Dredging International   June 2011 – September 2013
Dredging International   November 2002 – June 2011

Dredging, Organizational…

Kris Gijbels

Antwerp Area, Belgium
CEO bij Euro Gijbels NV
Food & Beverages

Kris Gilbert

Account manager&transport at AED group Headquarters

Kris Gilis


Kris Gilissen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Computer Hardware
Hammer   May 2015 – Present
2BY2   January 2015 – May 2015
Arrow – Microtronica   October 1993 – September 2014

Product Management, Solution Selling, Management, Key Account Management, Product Marketing, Account Management, B2B, Channel, Sales Management, Channel Partners

Kris Goemaere

Brussels Area, Belgium
Information Technology and Services

ICT, Leadership, ERP, Change Management, Business Analysis, SAP, Business Process, Account Management, ITIL, Project Management, French, Management, Testing, English, Dutch

Kris Goemaere

Bruges Area, Belgium
carrosserie hersteller
Self-employed   October 1993 – Present

Kris Goemaere

Gent Area, Belgium
Lager onderwijzer bij Taborschool Lotenhulle
Primary/Secondary Education

Kris Goen

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Coordinator Research Tomatoes at Proefcentrum Hoogstraten

Kris Goethals


Kris Goethals

Gent Area, Belgium
owner at Alfa Print Solutions
Graphic Design


Kris Goossenaerts

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Government Administration

Stedelijk Instituut Sierkunsten en Ambachten   1979 — 1997
A2, Fotografie

Stedelijk Insitituut voor Rekenplichtigen   1991 — 1993
Bachelor, Marketing and Advertising

Stad Antwerpen   July 2011 – Present
OCMW Antwerpen   November 2009 – Present
Stad Antwerpen   August 2010 – January 2011
Belgisch Parlement   November 2009 – August 2010
Corelio Het Nieuwsblad   November 1998 – November 2009
De Standaard / Het Nieuwsblad   1998 – 2009
Kris Goossenaerts   January 1995 – October 1998

Politics, French, Corporate Communications, Dutch, Media Relations, Internal Communications, Copywriting, Newspapers, New Media, Magazines, Editing, Public Relations, Social Media, Coaching, Strategic Communications, Journalism

Kris Goossens

Antwerp Area, Belgium

Hoger onderwijs korte type

Stad Antwerpen   March 2014 – Present
Self-employed   January 2004 – Present

Kris Goossens


Kris Goossens

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Quality Officer bij Securitas Alert Services
Security and Investigations

Kris Goossens


Kris Goossens

Willebroek, Vlaanderen, Belgium
Quality Officer bij Securitas Alert Services B.V.
Security and Investigations
Securitas Alert Services B.V.   2012 – Present
Securitas Alert Services B.V.   1992 – 2012

Management, Team Leadership, Security, Crisis Management, Security Audits, Personal Security, Leadership, Security Operations, Event Planning, Executive Protection, Training, Corporate Security, CCTV, Sales, Fire Safety, Alarm Systems, Fire Protection, Security Awareness, Emergency Management, External Audit, Control Room, Close Protection, Security Management, Research, Security Training, Investigation, Asset Protection, Internal Audit, Quality Control, Risk Assessment, Coaching

Kris Goossens


Kris Goossens

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Milieudeskundige houders gevaarlijke stoffen en gassen at GNO bvba
Environmental Services
gno bvba   October 1993 – Present

Surveying, Government, Environmental Auditing, Environmental Awareness, Auditing, Environmental Permitting, Environmental Compliance

Kris Goossens

Edegem, Vlaanderen, Belgium
PTS boom   January 2014 – December 2014

Dutch, Business Strategy, Teaching, Microsoft Office, New Business Development, English, Customer Service, Coaching

Kris Goossens

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Bediende bij Belgamex Services

Kris Goossens

Brussels Area, Belgium

Kris Goossens

Gent Area, Belgium
Expert Call Center bij bpost
Logistics and Supply Chain

Kris Goris

Bruges Area, Belgium
regisseur producer bij DAS Media web & video
Marketing and Advertising

Rits (meester in de audiovisuele kunsten)

Sint-Jan Berchmanscollege in West-Malle

DAS Media – web & video   January 2014 – Present
AVS   2007 – 2012
Kanakna, VRT   2007 – 2012
WTV-Focus   2000 – 2012
MCS   2002 – 2005

Management Consulting, Contract Management, Contract Negotiation, Change Management, Internal Communications, New Business Development, Strategic Planning, Microsoft Office, Contractors, Account Management, Project Coordination, Sales Management, Executive Management, Social Media, Construction, Sales, Process Scheduler, Corporate Communications, Press Releases

Kris Goris

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Software Implementation Consultant bij 4Business Software NV
Information Technology and Services

KHLeuven – ECHO   1995 — 1999
Bachelor, Accountancy-Taxes

4Business Software NV   November 2014 – Present
BKG AGENCY bvba and GVU-Casa gcv   September 1999 – Present
Digipolis   January 2013 – November 2014
SoftAdvice-BE   October 2011 – October 2012
Trigon nv   November 2009 – October 2011
BKG AGENCY bvba   September 1999 – November 2009

Microsoft Office, Consulting, Business Analysis, Software Project…, IT Service Management, Project Management

Kris Goubert

Gent Area, Belgium
Media Production
Kris Goubert   1999 – Present
Fisheye   May 2003 – Present
Blinkblink   February 2005 – Present
Coptermotion   2005 – Present

Sound, Aerial Cinematography, Photoshop, Event Producing, Production Support, Chamsys Operator, Digital Media, Photography, Production Managment, Video, Event Management, Photojournalism, Broadcast, Coolux Pandora’s Box…, Product Development, Video Production, Media Production, AV, After Effects, Digital Photography, Aerial Photography, Lighting, Multimedia

Kris Goubert


Kris Govaert

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Managing Director at Sky Man International
Mechanical or Industrial Engineering
Sky Man International   June 2012 – Present
GoCon   June 2012 – Present

Sales, Marketing Management, Change Management, Design Engineering, Account Management, Innovation Management, Team Building, Fall Protection, Project Management, Negotiation, Contract Negotiation, Marketing Strategy, B2B, Long Term Business…, Project Planning, Problem Solving, People Management, Telecommunications, Management, Product Management, New Business Development, Product Development, Suspended Access, International Sales, Work at Height, Contract Management, Leadership, Sales Management, Business Strategy, Key Account Management, Business Management, Manufacturing, Business Development, Marketing, Engineering

Kris Govaert

Gent Area, Belgium
Administratief medewerker bij PCVO Waas en Durme
Education Management

Kris Govaerts

Brussels Area, Belgium
Marketing and Advertising

Kris Govaerts

Rotselaar, Vlaanderen, Belgium
Bedrijfsleider at Quantor bvba
Mechanical or Industrial Engineering
Quantor bvba   September 2014 – Present
Aluro CNC   August 2007 – July 2014
MANO   October 2000 – March 2007

Sales Management, Key Account Management, English, Account Management, New Business Development, Negotiation, Supply Chain Management, Management, B2B, Procurement, Product Development, Purchasing, International Business, International Sales, Contract Negotiation

Kris Govaerts

Antwerp Area, Belgium

Hbo5   2014 — 2016

Petit Sablon   2011 – 2013

Kris Govaerts

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Bedrijfsleider/Eigenaar ATHAGO nv

Kris Govaerts

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Owner, none
Law Practice


Antwerp Area, Belgium

Kris Haesevoets

Bruxelles, Bruxelles-Capitale, Belgium
Acg Maserati Brussels

vub brussels
Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.)

Acg Maserati Brussels   July 2014 – Present
Toyota De Dijle   December 2007 – November 2014
mercedes benz Aalst – Ninove – Zottegem   December 2002 – December 2007
Mercedes benz antwerpen nv   January 2001 – December 2006
Stone Lease   January 1996 – January 2001

Automotive, Sales Management, Vehicles, Automotive Aftermarket, Business Planning, Business Strategy, Fleet Management, Automobile, Negotiation, Marketing Strategy, New Business Development

Kris Haesevoets

Brussels Area, Belgium
Account Manager at Wolters Kluwer Transport Services
Logistics and Supply Chain
Wolters Kluwer Transport Services   March 2014 – Present

Operations Management, Management, Air Freight, Trucking, Freight, Customer Oriented, Start-ups, Warehousing, Purchasing, Sales, Project Planning, Procurement, Supply Chain, Freight Forwarding, International Logistics, Business Development, Transportation…, Forwarding, Logistics Management, Professional Liability, Negotiation, Logistics, Supply Chain Management, Transportation, New Business Development

Kris Hartmann

Gent Area, Belgium
Manager Sales Administration at D’hont NV

Industrieel Hogeschool CTL Gent   1990 — 1994
Inustrieel ingenieur, Optie landbouw- en voedingsindustrieen

D’hont NV   March 2015 – Present
O’Neill Belgium   October 1998 – Present
Panesco   May 1996 – October 1998
Colruyt   July 1995 – May 1996

Sales Operations, Key Account Management, Customer Service, Operations Management, International Sales, Logistics

Kris Heeren

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Zaakvoerder bij King Alfonso BVBA
Human Resources

Postgraduaat Bedrijfsorganisatie   1990 — 1992
Master’s degree, Rechten

Rechten   1982 — 1987
Master’s degree, Rechtsgeleerdheid

King Alfonso BVBA   March 2012 – Present
Hudson Belgium   September 1998 – February 2012
Hudson   1998 – 2012
SEA INVEST   1997 – 1998
Aviapartner   1992 – 1997

Microsoft Excel, Employee Relations, Aviation, Social Media, Microsoft Word, Budget, Strategic Planning, Purchasing, Microsoft Office, Customer Service, Coaching, Performance Management, Team Building, Operations Management, PowerPoint, Negotiation, Management Consulting, Business Strategy, Project Management

Kris Heeren

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Human Resources

Kris Heeren

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Senior Manager at Hudson De Witte & Morel
Human Resources

Kris Heirbaut

Gent Area, Belgium
Owner, Heirbaut Lv
Heirbaut Lv   January 2006 – Present

financial management, dairy technologies, Management, cattle management, chocolate processing, Dairy, HACCP, Food Service, administration…, agriculture, Food, Product Development, Category Management

Kris Hellemans

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Zaakvoerder Possemiers Boom

Sint-Eligius Antwerpen   1989 — 1991

S.J.K.S. Sint-Niklaas   1982 — 1988

Mariekerke FC

POSSEMIERS NV – BOOM   February 2010 – Present
Lierse S.K.   2005 – 2014
E.I.A   October 1995 – February 2010
ELECTRO CASSIMON   September 1992 – October 1995

Kris Hellemans

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Drukker bij PX
Graphic Design

ACEBE, deeltijds onderwijs   1988 — 1990
Zeefdrukker, Grafische beroepen en drukkerijwerkzaamheden

Sint Gummaruscollege te Lier   1981 — 1987

PX   June 2001 – Present
Brandweer Borsbeek   January 1993 – Present
Reynders Group   1992 – June 2001
Totté drukt op alles NV   July 1988 – December 1991

Kris Hellemans


Kris Hellemans

Antwerp Area, Belgium
supervisor at Fabricom
Electrical/Electronic Manufacturing

Kris Hellemans – Van Den Branden


Kris Hemmeryckx


Kris Hemmeryckx


Kris Henderieckx

Avid mountainbiker, manager of TeamNarviflexNomadesk, headtrainer of WaaslandMTBschool and teacher at Atheneum Ekeren.

Kris Henderieckx

Gent Area, Belgium
teacher at KAE
Management Consulting

Kris Hens

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Owner, Team at Work bvba
Professional Training & Coaching

Schola Para Medicorum   1978 — 1981
Graduaat Orthopedagogie

Schola Para Medicorum, Antwerp   1978 — 1981
Bachelor’s degree, Graduaat Orthopedagogie

Schola Para Medicorum, Antwerpen   1978 — 1981
Bachelor’s degree, Graduaat Orthopedagogie

Team at Work bvba   February 2008 – Present
Johnson Diversey   2000 – 2006
Diverseylever   1997 – 1999
Lever Otarès   June 1995 – 1997
Euroclean   September 1993 – June 1995
General Office Maintenance   April 1991 – September 1993
General Office Maintenance   1987 – 1991
Borgerstein vzw   1983 – 1987
Spelewei vzw   September 1981 – 1983

Recruiting, Coaching, Leadership, B2B, Training, Solution Implementation, Management, Management Consulting, Operations Management, Product Development, Entrepreneurship

Kris Herbots

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Head of Intensive Care at Dexia
Dexia   October 2007 – Present

Kris Hermans

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Electrical/Electronic Manufacturing

Project Planning, Microsoft Excel, Project Engineering, Electricity, Help Desk Support, Eplan, Electrical Engineering, Synology NAS, ICT, People Skills, Microstation, Windows 8, Passion for Helping…, Cloud Computing

Kris Hermans

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Apple Certified Technical Coordinator at Easym
Information Technology and Services
Easy-m   March 1999 – Present

Active Directory, Juniper, Mail Server, Servers, Apple Certified, Windows Server, System Deployment, Network Security, DNS, OS X, Hardware, Technical Support, VPN

Kris Hermans

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Information Technology and Services

Kris Hermans

Bruges Area, Belgium
Personeelsadministratie at BuSO Ravelijn
Education Management
BuSo Ravelijn   September 2007 – Present
SD Worx   March 2001 – October 2007
VAB   October 1996 – February 2001

Kris Hermans


Kris Hermans


Kris Hermans


Kris Hermans


Kris Hermans

Antwerp Area, Belgium
Zaakvoerder bij Alg daktimmer hermans kris bvba

Kris Hermans

Brussels Area, Belgium
Consumer Services

Kris Herremans

Apparel & Fashion

Kris Hertschap


Kris Hertsens

Gent Area, Belgium
teacher at TimmermansVISAR
Information Technology and Services

Kris Heyde

Gent Area, Belgium
Prof. em. at Ghent University

Ghent University   1961 — 1965

Ghent University   July 1965 – Present

Science, Scientific Writing, LaTeX, Statistics, Lecturing

Kris Heymans

Brussels Area, Belgium
Computer Networking

Architecture, High Availability, Service Management, Networking, NAS, Change Management, Solution Selling, Data Center, Incident Management, vSphere, Infrastructure, SAN, Cloud Computing, Pre-sales, Managed Services, Servers, Team Leadership, IT Service Management, Consultancy, VMware, Storage Area Networks, Virtualization, Storage, NetApp, Cisco Technologies, Solution Architecture, Business Development, Disaster Recovery, Troubleshooting, People Management, ITIL, VMware ESX, IT Management

Kris Heyneman

Brussels Area, Belgium
projectmanager at Euro Immo Star
Architecture & Planning

Kris Heyneman

Gent Area, Belgium
mr at euroimmostar
Real Estate

Kris Heyneman

Gent Area, Belgium
Real Estate

Kris Heyvaert

Brussels Area, Belgium
Shared ICT Manager / Project Manager at Aurelium
Computer Networking
Aurelium   June 2011 – Present
Eyeworks   July 2004 – June 2011
Banksys   July 2002 – July 2004
Gamelec   September 2001 – July 2002

Outsourcing, Hyper-V, Servers, VMware, ICT, Citrix, Windows Server

Kris Heyvaert

Zaventem Nossegem, Vlaanderen, Belgium
Technical Analyst at NSI IT Software & Services
NSI IT Software & Services   March 2015 – Present

Kris Heyvaert

Gent Area, Belgium
Manager at AXA

Kris Heyvaert

Gent Area, Belgium
Supervisor at AXA

Kris Hofmans

Brussels Area, Belgium
Teamleader mechanical maintenance at E.ON generation Belgium
Oil & Energy

Hoger Technisch Instituut Kardinaal Mercier; Schaarbeek
B1 Nijverheidstekenen (mechaninca)

Hoger Technische Instituut Kardinaal Mercier; Schaarbeek
A2 Mechanica

O. L. V. College; Vilvoorde
Lagere humaniora

VTI; Aalst
Computergestuurde Produktietechnieken

E.ON   November 2012 – Present
E.ON generation Belgium   November 2009 – November 2012
ELECTRABEL – GDF SUEZ GROUP   December 2000 – November 2009

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Journal of Language Teaching and Research

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Vol 9, No 4 (2018)

Journal of Language Teaching and Research

Journal of Language Teaching and Research (JLTR,ISSN 1798-4769) is a scholarly peer-reviewed international scientific journal published bimonthly, focusing on theories, methods, and materials in language teaching, study and research. It provides a high profile, leading edge forum for academics, professionals, consultants, educators, practitioners and students in the field to contribute and disseminate innovative new work on language teaching and research.
JLTR invites original, previously unpublished, research and survey articles, plus research-in-progress reports and short research notes, on both practical and theoretical aspects of language teaching, learning, and research.

Journal Homepage Image

Vol 9, No 4 (2018)

Download Full Issue in PDF

Table of Contents


Immersion versus Engagement Strategies: Examining the Effects on Conversational Competence amongst Korean Students in an Intensive English Program
Aaron Jones
Semantic-related Word Root Sets: To Work, or Not to Work
Li Min Chen
Can the Reading Construct Be Examined outside the Reading Context? An Investigation of the Construct Validity of an English as a Foreign Language Reading Test
Godefroid B. Katalayi
Cognitive Levels in Saudi EFL Teachers’ and Textbook Questions
Abdulaziz Ibrahim S. Alnofal
The Phonological Influence of Ethnic Community Languages in Learning Kiswahili, a Case of Kinyakyusa in Mbeya, Tanzania
Godson Robert Mtallo, Harid Andrew Mwambula
Ethics and Translation of Shakespeare’s Dramas —A Case Study on Zhu Shenghao’s Translation of Romeo and Juliet
Zhiwei Gu
Use of Technology in the Teaching of Telugu Concepts to Create Enthusiastic Learning Environment—A Case Study among Educators
Elliah Prema, Bahadur Goonesh Kumar
Ethical Consciousness under Totalitarianism —Review on George Orwell’s 1984
Xuan Qin
Research on Evaluation Model of the Effective EFL Teaching in the Era of Informatization
Jinzhu Zhang
Spelling Errors among Arab English Speakers
Thara Mahmoud Ali Aloglah
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justice hamoodur rahman commission report pdf

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War > Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report


Independence War

Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report

The War Inquiry Commission was appointed by the President of Pakistan in December 1971.

In its secret report, never
made public in Pakistan  the commission, headed by then Chief Justice of
Pakistan, Hamoodur Rahman, held widespread atrocities, other abuses of power by
Pakistani generals and a complete failure in civilian and martial-law leadership
responsible for the loss of East Pakistan. The report dwells on a range of sins:
killing of thousands of Bangladeshis�both civilians and �Bengali� soldiers�rape,
pan smuggling, looting of banks in East Pakistan, drunkenness by officers, even
an instance of a Brigadier �entertaining� women while his troops were being
shelled by Indian troops. It recommended a string of court-martials and trials
against top officers . Nothing ever happened. The army�s role in splintering
Pakistan after its greatest military debacle was largely ignored by successive
Pakistani governments.

The Commission examined nearly 300 witnesses and hundreds of classified army
signals  between East and West Pakistan. The final report was submitted on
October 23, 1974, detailing political, administrative, military and moral
failings of then Pakistan.

The ReportPDF version




















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version of the report you need to have Adobe Acrobat Reader. Click here
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Home / Reports / Download Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report 1971

Download Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report 1971

in Reports

October 3, 2007

Hamoodur Rahman (Urdu:) (born November 1, 1910) was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and Vice Chancellor of Dhaka University. Justice Hamoodur Rahman was born in Patna, India. He obtained his graduation from the St. Xavier’s College of the University of Calcutta and an LLB from London University, studied in Gray’s Inn, London, and was called to the Bar in London in 1937.

He was made the chairman of the commission for inquiring into the break-up of Pakistan and role of the Pakistan army. His report revealed many aspects of politics in Pakistan army and particularly the atrocities committed by the army during the Civil War of 1971. Because of the nature of the findings it was not declassified for decades until an Indian newspaper published the details.

The War Inquiry Commission was appointed by the President of Pakistan in December 1971. The report was never made public in Pakistan. The report explores a number of issues such as : killing of thousands of Bangladeshis — both civilians and “Bengali” soldiers—rape, pan smuggling, looting of banks in East Pakistan, drunkenness by officers, even an instance of a Brigadier “entertaining” women while his troops were being shelled by Indian troops. The report recommended a string of court-martial and trials against top officers . However, no action was taken. The army’s role in splintering Pakistan after its greatest military debacle was largely ignored by successive Pakistani governments. The report examined nearly 300 individuals and hundreds of classified army signals. The final report was submitted on October 23, 1974.

The Report is in PDF format. Download the report from below. Right click on the link and choose “Save Target As” (IE) or “Save Link As” (FireFox)

Download Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report

If you are unable to download this book, kindly let us know. Also please view the following link for more books!

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  1. W. Khan

    April 12, 2018 at 8:36 AM

    I have very strong reasons to believe this report is neither complete nor authenticated report. Lot of things doesn’t appeal to common sense and can’t pass the judgment test by those who have little bit knowledge of armed forces and the then East Pakistan. There are intelligent fabrications which I believe were added by Indian press for obvious reasons. I will advise strict caution and judgement while drawing inferences from this text.


  2. fayyaz

    August 9, 2013 at 1:09 PM

    hu y bd oiddb j hd iusd ssaluda


  3. Asif Sarwar

    February 6, 2012 at 4:41 AM

    Sir yeh download nahein ho rahi


  4. Faizan

    June 24, 2010 at 8:56 PM

    agar yehi kitabb urdu main hoti to kia hi batt the


  5. Shirdi Baba

    November 14, 2009 at 2:41 AM

    Thanks for putting this post. Very helpful for those historians.


  6. zeeshan

    February 15, 2009 at 10:14 AM

    zabbardast yaar


  7. Ghouri

    October 6, 2008 at 11:25 AM

    @ Munir

    Whatever was available, We provided for everyone’s knowledge. If you or anyone able to find, can share with us. We will be happy to make it public. Thanks


  8. Munir

    October 5, 2008 at 1:25 PM

    dis file has only 68 pages, while the original REPORT was consisted of approx 500 pages, & it also was published in URDU, could neone upload it in URDU.
    i am waiting for generous reply so plz consider me worth for it.


  9. asif

    October 16, 2007 at 9:59 AM

    thanks for providing such easy access to knowledge. will u place more books for download.


  10. M Shahid Sheikh

    October 6, 2007 at 11:36 AM

    Is it available in Urdu?


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Friday, June 14, 2013

How to print white text on black or colored paper (Yes, it’s possible -and easy)

So this isn’t so much a DIY project as much as it is a tip and trick that I learned today as I was attempting to make a DIY Father’s Day gift for my husband.  What I wanted to do was print out a document that looked like a blackboard with white chalkboard font.  But if you’ve ever tried to print white font you know it’s not actually as simple as it seems like it should be.

You can’t just stick a black piece of paper (or any other non-white sheet of paper) into the printer and get white text by selecting white or even a shade of near-white for your text. So how to print white text on a black background…This had me scratching my head and running around like a mad woman as time was running out.

my neighbor stopped over, saw my distress, and suggested putting a
black square behind the white text in the word processing program I was
using. (Wait til I tell you the other life hacks she shared!)  To easily make the black square in the background try using a program like Powerpoint or PhotoShop
instead of MS Word so you can more easily manipulate the shapes and text.  (As you know by now…I am a sucker for PowerPoint.)

Stretch black sqaure to fit the full page

I tried this on black construction paper and the paper looked like nothing had been printed on it – even though I had selected white text.  That’s when I noticed there looked like a black square on the black paper.  Where the text was supposed to be I could actually see it was negative space – in other words I could see the actual paper instead of ink for the font.  Am I making any sense here? Yeah, I didn’t think so.

Anyway, what I realized was…if I printed this same black background with white font on white paper, the white text would actually show up as negative space and thus the white paper would shine through all that black ink.  So all that text you see right there <<< that’s actually the white paper peeking through. 

Ah ha…tricked you printer – and that’s my hack to print white text on a black background.  (BTW I cut my piece down to size and then mounted it on a piece of white card stock to make it a little thicker…which is why you see a white border on top and bottom.)

So now you’re wondering…how to print white font on colored paper.  Well, you don’t actually use colored paper. You just use white paper and change the color of your background square…obviously this would be if you want a red background.  If you’d like another color – just change that background square.  Yes, it uses a lot of ink so use this technique sparingly (we figured dad was worth it). And hey…at least you’re saving in the white spaces…silver lining people, silver lining. 

You’re welcoming….2IY bringing you the life hacks you really need. Haha.

PS. Tutorial on this super cute, easy, cheap, kid-friendly and last minute Father’s Day gift is coming soon. 

Happy Friday Everyone!

Posted by: Melissa

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  4. How to Print White Onto Black Paper

How to Print White Onto Black Paper

March 31, 2015
By: Amy Dombrower
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You’d think it’d be fairly simple to print white text on black paper. But unfortunately, the problem is that the color printing inks–cyan, yellow, magenta and black–are actually transparent. If you try to print light-colored ink on dark paper, the ink won’t show through. However, you can get around this by printing a black background onto the paper and the white text over it.

Video of the Day


Print white on black paper using a black background.


Decide what computer program you are going to use to format your document. If it’s something complex, such as a photo illustration or layout, it may be best to use a program similar to Adobe Photoshop or InDesign. If it’s something simple, the basic Windows Paint will do the trick. You need a program that will allow you to fill the background of the page.


Open the computer program. Use the "Fill" option to create the black background. Choose 100 percent black as the fill color. In Paint, for instance, click "Color 2," and select black from the color palette. Click the paint bucket icon to fill the page. If you are using InDesign or a similar layout program, draw a box that covers the page and fill it with black.


Select white as your foreground color. Begin typing to create white text. If you already have text in your document, simply select it to make it white.


Feed the paper into your printer. You can print on black paper, or just use regular white paper. It won’t matter, since you have to print the black background anyway. Connect your printer to the computer.


Choose "Print" to print the document.

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3d snowflake paper tutorial

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A Piece Of Rainbow

creative home & garden DIY, beautiful crafts for happiness

Giant 3D Paper Snowflake Pendants from Paper Bags


If you are looking for ideas to create a magical winter wonderland, try these giant 3D paper snowflake pendants!

Made from simple paper bags or just plain white office paper, they are so easy to make.
I will share the free templates of all three snowflake patterns for you to download at the end.


These lighted 3D paper snowflakes look gorgeous for the holidays, or any time of year when you want a little something special!



Materials and tools:

( Some of the helpful resources are affiliate links. Full disclosure here . )

  • office paper, or white paper bags. The templates are for 8.5″x11″ paper since everyone has it!
  • LED string lights: if you plan to use them for a quick decor, these battery powered ones are great. If you plan to leave them up for a long time, these plug-in LED fairy lights are what I used.
  • clear fishing lines like these for hanging the pendants
  • a little secret weapon: white paper clips   – you will see why they are must haves!


Below is a video to show you how the snowflakes magically open!

Step 1: Make some “paper bags” using office paper. (Skip this step if you are using paper bags.)

I have included fold and glue lines in the templates at the end.


This step is pretty simple: make some paper bags by folding a piece of 8.5″x11″ and gluing the sides first.


The bottom does not need to be glued all the way, just a little dab at the center.

Fold each “bag” in half and glue a stack of them ( blue lines showing where to apply glue). I prefer to glue together 3 at a time for easy cutting. Each snowflake will need 8 to 9 “bags”.

If you like the idea of making simple things extraordinary, check out these 16 inspiring and beautiful gift wrapping hacks.

16 inspiring gift wrapping hacks on how to make instant gift bags and beautiful gift wraps in minutes, using re-purposed materials for almost free! - A Piece Of Rainbow

Step 2: Fold and cut.

paper-bag-snowflake-pendants-apieceofrainbowblog-25 paper-bag-snowflake-pendants-apieceofrainbowblog-24

You can print or  trace the patterns from my templates, or invent your own designs!

After cutting three stack of  paper bags, glue them together to form a snowflake.

Leave an opening so the snowflake can be stored closed.


Here is a little secret on how to hold a snowflake together without gluing so they can be stored flat- Continue To Next Page…

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  1. Beautifull…Beautifull++++++++++++++
    Lovely creation.
    Thinking of you Ananda

  2. How adorable are these?? Perfect and unique for the holidays!

  3. Thanks for the templates – these are beautiful!

  4. So beautiful! They would be perfect for Christmas decorations

  5. I keep trying to click the link for the templates but it just reloads the same page. Where can I get the templates?

    • it is working – there are quite a few people downloading as of right now. maybe send the post link to friends and see if they can download?

    • I have downloaded and it worked beautifully! It’s a five page pdf. Thank you!!!

    • You may have to try different devices. What works on pc or mac doesn’t always work on tablet, pad or cellphones.

    • If you are having trouble downloading templates, on the link that says to download, right click it and tell it to open in new window. It worked for me and I have been trying for 3 days to get them. These are so cool. I hope this helps others to get them.

  6. These are absolutely adorable. Even better they are easy to make. This looks like a really cool project to do with my daughter this Christmas. I pinned this for later. Blessings!

  7. WOw! I love these! I definitely need to show them to my kids. They love making snowflakes and other crafts.

  8. You are such amazing artist! Going to make this snowflakes with my kids. So many things to explore here – I will be back!

  9. Omg! These snowflakes are beautiful. I’ve always wondered how to make them, now i’ll be able to give it a try. Sooooo fun!

  10. Beautiful and simple…your site is a must visit this time of the year…will be trying one or two of the outdoor lights ideas, too BTW, Ananda, I may not have mentioned this to you– I tried infusing olive oil with rosemary, like you showed…and it worked beautifully. Thank you:)
    Wish you a happy time leading up to Christmas. xx

  11. I love these snowflakes. I remember making the simple ones when I was a kid with my mom. Pinned!

  12. I have the same experience as Nicole. I did as you suggested, sent to a friend, but that didn’t work.

    • hi linda, did you click the yellow button and enter your email? got any email from us in your spam mail at all? or are you having trouble with the link in our email ?

  13. I love your site and love these decorations, will try my hand at them tomorrow.
    Wishing you and yours a wonderful Thanksgiving and thank you for all you give to us

    • thank you petra and happy thanksgiving! 🙂

  14. These look so cool! I think we have all made snowflakes out of paper, but I have never done anything this fun/3D before. These look so awesome when they are lit up!

  15. oh wow these are so beautiful for christmas thank you for sharing

  16. Thanks for the templates, these are beautiful <3
    Happy Thanksgiving!

    • happy holidays jeremi!! =)

  17. What is the name of the piano piece that is playing?

    • hi jennfer! this piece is from a japanese pianist and i could not figure out the name! but if you like it, you will find similar ones by Ernesto Cortazar on YouTube =)

  18. I am also unable to download the templates. It just keeps bringing me back to the same page. The web address that is supposed to be the templates is, , but that does not work. Help! 🙂 THANK YOU!

    • after clicking the yellow button, and fill out the info, you will get our emails (check junk folder) with the download link! =)

  19. Hi there

    Absolutely lovely goodies. Will be trying them out in December.
    Unable to download templates of snowflakes and 3d lanterns – any special place
    to register before receiving?

    • hi lorna! did you get our emails (check junk folder) with the download link after you filled out the form?

    • after clicking the yellow button, and fill out the info, you will get our emails (check junk folder) with the download link! =)

  20. I am grateful for all the beautiful projects you share with us. Happy Thanksgiving!

  21. Wow what an impact this has with the lights behind it. It is so inexpensive to make well pretty much free and who doesn’t love that 🙂 You get the kiddos in on it to and its fun for everyone 🙂

    • have fun and happy holidays lindsay! =)

  22. very beautiful!! I have to make one at home right away!!!!

  23. I love these Giant Snowflake Pendants! You’re a genius! I would very much appreciate the download link if it is still available. Thank you so very much! Judy I have no website at this time. Just don’t have the time to maintain one. 🙁

    • hi! the link is a yellow button at the end of page 2. 🙂

  24. I really want to make this for my school concert stage decorations and yours are by far the best out there but I cannot download the templates!! I click the yellow box and enter my email and it just takes me back to the start of the page but no templates…. any help???

    • here-
      enjoy! 🙂

  25. They are beautiful. I remember making these when I was in grade school about 55+ years ago.

    • that sounds amazing! it took me quite a while to find out how to make these! 🙂


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    Philosophy essay writing guide page in the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies site.History essay writing guide page in the Faculty of Arts site.CLICK HERE CLICK HERE CLICK HERE CLICK HERE CLICK HERE. Unimelb Ssps Essay Writing Guide. Šumski plod – Unimelb Ssps Essay Writing GuideSchool of …School of Social and Political Sciences – Information for current undergraduate students including essay writing guidesWriting successful essays (PDF File | 109.0 KB) Videos (1) Paraphrasing Ideas in your Writing. Back to top. Navigation. … ask.unimelb; Share: Services for Students …Writing successful essays_UniMelb.pdf – Download as … Essay writing for opportunity to turn a good essay into an excellent one. J. evidence … Guide Evalsed.Style guides and presentations … Schools and Departments produce Essay Writing / Citation Guidelines to planning, … ask.unimelb. Provide Site …Essay writing. The most common form of assessment used in the Faculty of Arts is a research essay. Writing a good essay can be challenging, but it is also a rewarding …

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  1. Faculty of Arts
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  5. Philosophy essay writing guide

Philosophy essay writing guide

Philosophy essay writing guide

  • Introduction
  • Essay topics
  • Researching your essay
  • Writing your essay
  • Plagiarism and originality
  • Quotations
  • Presentation of essays
  • A bit on Philosophy exams


This guide is intended to give new students of philosophy some preliminary advice about writing philosophy essays at university. For many of you, writing a philosophy essay will be something of a new experience, and no doubt many of you will be a little unsure of what to expect, or of what is expected of you. Most of you will have written essays in school for English, History, etc. A philosophy essay is something a little different again. However, it is not an unfathomable, mysterious affair, nor one where anything goes.

Just what a philosophy essay is will depend a lot, as you’d expect, on just what philosophy is. Defining philosophy is always a more or less controversial business, but one way to think of what is done in university philosophy departments is to think of the difference between having a philosophy and doing philosophy. Virtually everyone “has a philosophy” in the sense that we have many basic beliefs about the world and ourselves and use certain key concepts to articulate those beliefs. Many of us initially come to thus “have a philosophy” (or elements of several philosophies) often only unconsciously, or by following “what’s obvious” or “what everybody knows”, or by adopting a view because it sounds exciting or is intellectually fashionable.

“Doing philosophy”, on the other hand, is a self-conscious unearthing and rigorous examination of these basic beliefs and key concepts. In doing so, we try to clarify the meanings of those beliefs and concepts and to evaluate critically their rational grounds or justification. Thus, rather than having their heads in the clouds, philosophers are really more under the surface of our thinking, examining the structures that support – or fail to support – those who trust that they have their feet on the ground. Such examination may even help to develop new and firmer ground.

Doing philosophy, then, begins with asking questions about the fundamental ideas and concepts that inform our ways of looking at the world and ourselves, and proceeds by developing responses to those questions which seek to gain insight into those ideas and concepts – and part of that development consists in asking further questions, giving further responses, and so on. Human beings across the world have been engaged in this sort of dialogue of question and response for many centuries – even millennia – and a number of great traditions of reflection and inquiry have evolved that have fundamentally influenced the development of religion, art, science and politics in many cultures. The influence of philosophical thinking on Western civilization, in particular, can be traced back more than 2,500 years to the Ancient Greeks.

In philosophy, a good essay is one that, among other things, displays a good sense of this dialectic of question and response by asking insightful, probing questions, and providing reasoned, well-argued responses. This means that you should not rest content with merely an unintegrated collection of assertions, but should instead work at establishing logical relations between your thoughts. You are assessed not on the basis of what you believe, but on how well you argue for the position you adopt in your essay, and on how interesting and insightful your discussion of the issues is. That is to say, you are assessed on how well you do philosophy, not on what philosophy you end up having. Nonetheless, you ought to make sure that your essay’s discussion is relevant to the topic. (See Section 5.2 below on relevance.)

It is hoped that you enjoy the activity of essay writing. If you have chosen to study Arts, it is likely that you will have a particular interest in – even a passion for – ideas and the variety of forms and genres in which ideas are expressed and explored. The argumentative or discursive formal academic essay is one such form, and one which can be a pleasure to read and to write. Thus, the assessment that is set in philosophy courses is primarily an invitation to you to pursue what is already (or, hopefully, soon to be) your own interest in writing to explore ideas. However, your immediate goal in writing an academic philosophy essay ought not to be to write a personal testament, confession or polemic. Rather, you should primarily aim at articulating, clearly and relatively dispassionately, your philosophical thinking on the topic at hand. Nevertheless, the kind and degree of personal development one can gain from taking up the challenge to think and to write carefully, clearly and thoroughly is certainly something to be greatly valued.

This guide is intended to help you get started in the business of writing philosophy essays. As you practise your philosophical writing skills, you will develop your own technique, and learn what is appropriate in each particular case. So you may well come to “work around” many of these guidelines. Nonetheless, it is important that you pass through that which you seek to pass beyond.* In addition to your own writing, your reading of other philosophers will help you to develop your sense of what constitutes good philosophical writing. As you read, note the various styles and techniques that philosophical authors employ in their treatment of philosophical issues. Practice and studying good examples, then, are the most valuable ways to develop your essay writing skills.

This guide is, moreover, only one of many publications that introduce philosophy students to essay writing. Some others you may like to consult include:

  • A. P. Martinich, Philosophical Writing, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997)
  • J. Feinberg and R. Shafer-Landau, Doing Philosophy: A Guide to the Writing of Philosophy Papers, 2nd ed. (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2001)
  • Z. Seech, Writing Philosophy Papers, 4th ed. (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2003)
  • R. Solomon, “Writing Philosophy”, Appendix to his The Big Questions: A Short Introduction to Philosophy, 6th ed. (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2001)
  • S. Gorovitz et al., Philosophical Analysis: An Introduction to its Language and Techniques, 3rd ed. (New York: Random House, 1979)

Also, the websites of many philosophy departments in universities around Australia and the world contain downloadable essay writing guides or links to them.

*This phrase is adapted from Jacques Bouveresse, “Why I am so very unFrench”, in Alan Montefiore, ed., Philosophy in France Today (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 12.

What do I do in a Philosophy essay?

Philosophy essay topics are not designed to provide an intellectual obstacle course that trips you up so as to delight a malicious marker. They are designed to invite you to “grapple with” with some particular philosophical problem or issue. That is to say, they are designed to offer you an opportunity to demonstrate your understanding of a particular philosophical problem or issue, and to exhibit your own philosophical skills of analysis, argumentation, etc. These twin goals are usually best achieved by ensuring that your essay performs two basic functions (your understanding and your skills apply to both):

an exposition of the problem or issue in question (often as it is posed in some particular text); and
a critical discussion of the problem or text

These two functions can, but need not always, correspond to physically or structurally distinct sections of your essay. See Section 5.1.


The expository (“setting forth”) aspect of your essay is where you should make clear what the issue is and why it is an issue. Where you are dealing with an issue as it is presented in some particular text, your aim should be to make clear what it is that the author in question meant in their text, what they see as the issue and why they see it as an issue. This does not involve merely quoting or paraphrasing a text. Of course, occasional quotation and paraphrase may be appropriate – sometimes necessary – but these ought not to constitute the sole or major content of your exposition. Where you do quote or paraphrase, make sure you attribute your sources in footnotes or endnotes. (See Section 7.)

Exposition is, then, primarily a matter of developing in your own words what you think the issue is or what you think the text means. In all expository work you should always try to give a fair and accurate account of a text or problem, even when the exposition becomes more interpretive rather than simply descriptive. You ought to be patient and sympathetic in your exposition, even if you intend later to criticise heavily the philosopher in question. Indeed, the better the exposition in this regard, usually the more effective the critique.

An important part of exposition is your analysis of the text or issue. Here you should try to “break down” the text, issue or problem into its constitutive elements by distinguishing its different parts. (E.g. “There are two basic kinds of freedom in question when we speak of freedom of the will. First, … . Second, …”, or “There are three elements in Plato’s conception of the soul, namely… He establishes these three elements by means of the following two arguments… “) This also involves showing the relationships between those elements, relationships which make them “parts of the whole”.

As well as laying out these elements within a text or issue, you can also (when appropriate or relevant) show how a text or issue “connects up with” other texts, issues, or philosophical and/or historical developments, which can help to shed further light on the matter by giving it a broader context. (eg “Freedom of the will is importantly connected to the justification of punishment”, or “Plato’s tripartite theory of the soul bears interesting resemblances to Freud’s analysis of the psyche”, or “Kant’s transcendental idealism can be seen as reconciling the preceding rationalist and empiricist accounts of knowledge”.)

An exposition of a text need not always simply follow the author’s own view of what it means. You should, of course, demonstrate that you understand how the author themself understands their work, but an exposition can sometimes go beyond this, giving another reading of the text. (eg “Heidegger might deny it, but his Being and Time can be read as developing a pragmatist account of human understanding.”) A given text or issue may well be susceptible to a number of plausible or reasonable interpretations. An exposition should aim to be sensitive to such variety. When appropriate, you should defend your interpretations against rivals and objections. Your interpretation ought, though, to be aimed at elucidating the meaning or meanings of the text or issue and not serve merely as a “coat-hanger” for presenting your own favoured views on the matter in question, which should be left to your …

Critical discussion

This is where your thought gets more of the centre stage. Here you should attempt to develop a response to the issues which your exposition has made clear, and/or, in the case of a discussion of some particular text, attempt to give a critical appraisal of the author’s treatment of the issue. In developing a response to a philosophical problem, argumentation is, again, of central importance. Avoid making unsupported assertions; back up your claims with reasons, and connect up your ideas so that they progress logically toward your conclusions. Consider some of the various objections to and questions about your views that others might or have put forward, and try to respond to them in defence of your own line of thinking. Your goal here should be to discuss what you have expounded so as to come to some conclusion or judgement about it. (“Critical” is derived from the Ancient Greek for “to decide, to judge”.) Critical discussion is thus not necessarily “destructive” or “negative”; it can be quite constructive and positive.

In the case of a critical appraisal of a particular author’s text, you can negatively criticise the author’s arguments by pointing out questionable assumptions, invalid reasoning, etc. If, on the other hand, you think that the text is good, then your critical discussion can be positive. This can be done by revealing its “hidden virtues” (that is, by showing that there is more to the author’s arguments and views than what lies on the surface) and/or by defending an author against possible and/or actual criticisms. (eg “Norman Malcolm argues that Descartes is mistaken in assuming that dreams and waking episodes have the same content.* However, Malcolm fails to appreciate the subtlety of Descartes’ argument in the First Meditation, which allows Descartes to claim . . .”) Just to expound an author’s arguments and then say “I disagree” or “That seems right” is not really enough – you need to “have something to say” about it. Of course, by all means go on, after finding fault with some philosopher, to answer in your own way the questions tackled or raised by the author. (eg “Simone de Beauvoir’s analysis of women’s oppression in The Second Sex suffers from serious weaknesses, as I have shown in Section 2 above. A better way to approach the issue, I shall now argue, is to . . .”.)

Where you are not primarily concerned with evaluating or responding to a particular text, your critical discussion can be more focused on your own constructive response to the issue. (eg “Having used Dworkin’s account to clarify the meanings of the concepts of ‘the sanctity of life’ and ‘voluntariness’, I shall now argue that voluntary euthanasia is morally permissible because its voluntariness respects what is of value in the notion of the sanctity of life” – where you now leave Dworkin behind as a source and move on to give your own account.)

* See Norman Malcolm, “Dreaming and Skepticism”, in Willis Doney, ed., Descartes: A Collection of Critical Essays (London: Macmillan, 1967), p. 56.

Guide to Researching and Writing Philosophy Essays

5th edition by Steven Tudor, for the Philosophy program, University of Melbourne, 2003.

This fifth edition of How to Write a Philosophy Essay: A Guide for Students (previous editions titled A Guide to Researching and Writing Philosophy Essays) was prepared in consultation with members of the Philosophy program, The University of Melbourne. For advice and assistance on this and earlier editions, thanks are due to Graham Priest, Barry Taylor, Christopher Cordner, Doug Adeney, Josie Winther, Linda Burns, Marion Tapper, Kimon Lycos, Brendan Long, Jeremy Moss, Tony Coady, Will Barrett, Brian Scarlett, and Megan Laverty. Some use was also made of materials prepared by the Philosophy Departments of La Trobe University, The University of Queensland, and The Australian National University.

Disclaimer: University, Faculty and program rules

Please note: this booklet does not provide authoritative statements of the official policies or rules of The University of Melbourne, The Faculty of Arts, or the Philosophy program with regard to student essays and examinations or any other matters. Students should, therefore, not rely on this booklet for such information, for which they should consult the various appropriate notice boards, handbooks, websites, and/or members of staff.

Essay topics

What do philosophy essay topics look like? There are, very roughly, two basic kinds of philosophy essay topics: “text-focused” topics and “problem-focused” topics. Text-focused topics ask you to consider some particular philosopher’s writing on some issue. (eg “Discuss critically David Hume’s account of causation in Part III of Book I of his A Treatise of Human Nature” or “Was Wittgenstein right to say that ‘the meaning of a word is its use in the language’, in his Philosophical Investigations, Sec. 43?”). Problem-focused topics are more directly about a particular philosophical problem or issue, without reference to any particular philosopher’s text. (eg “Is voluntary euthanasia morally permissible?” or “What is scientific method?”)

There is another sort of topic, one which presents a statement and asks you to discuss it, where that statement is a “made up” or, at least, unattributed quote. (eg. “‘Without belief in God, people cannot be moral’. Discuss.”) I shall regard these as variations of the problem-focused type of topic. Where you are asked to discuss some such statement “with reference to” some specified text or philosopher, then that topic becomes more text-focused. (eg “‘Without belief in God, people cannot be moral’. Discuss with reference to J.L. Mackie’s Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong.“) Occasionally, a topic presents an unattributed statement, but the statement is, in fact, a quote from a particular philosopher you’ve been studying, or, at least, a good paraphrase of their thinking. (An example of the latter: “‘All the ideas in our minds originate from either sense perception or our reflection upon sensory information.’ Discuss.”, in a course devoted to John Locke, whose views are summed up in the quoted statement, though those words are not actually his.) Should you take such topics as problem- or text-focused? Rather unhelpfully, I’ll say only that it depends on the case. You might ask your lecturer or tutor about it. Whichever way you do take it, be clear in your essay which way you are taking it.

The difference between text-focused and problem-focused essay topics is, however, not very radical. This is because, on the one hand, any particular philosopher’s text is about some philosophical problem or question, while, on the other hand, most philosophical problems (certainly virtually all those you will be given as essay topics at university) will have been written about by previous philosophers.

The basic way to approach text-focused topics, then, is to treat the nominated text as an attempt by one philosopher to deal with a particular philosophical problem or issue. The essay topic will, generally speaking, be inviting you to do philosophy with that philosopher, to engage with them in thinking about the issue, whether that engagement proves to be as an ally or an adversary. The chosen text will usually be one which has been (or deserves to be) influential or significant in the history of philosophy, but the task is not to pay homage to past masters. But, even if homage is your thing, the best way to do that here is to engage with the master philosophically.

With regard to problem-focused topics, you will often find your exploration of the problem aided by taking some text or texts which have dealt with it as reference points or prompts. This is not always strictly necessary, but many of you starting out in philosophy will find it helpful to do so – it can help you give focus to your response to the question. (Thus, you might, in an essay on the topic “Is voluntary euthanasia morally permissible?” take it upon yourself to use, for example, Ronald Dworkin’s Life’s Dominion and Peter Singer’s Practical Ethics as reference points. Or, in an essay on the topic “What is scientific method?”, you might set up your answer via a comparison of the two different accounts in Karl Popper’s The Logic of Scientific Discovery and Paul Feyerabend’s Against Method.*) How will you know which texts to adopt as reference points or prompts, if none is mentioned in the essay topic itself? One way is to consider what texts have already been mentioned with regard to the topic in your course reading guide and in lectures and tutorials. Another way is to do some of your own research. On this see Section 4 below.

* In this guide, in giving examples of how to go about answering an essay question, I am not necessarily giving any concrete or reliable advice for any particular topic. The examples are primarily to do with the form or style or strategy you might find helpful.

Researching your essay


To do research for your philosophy essay you need to do only two things: read and think. Actually, for problem-focused essays, thinking is the only truly necessary bit, but it’s highly likely that you will find your thinking much assisted if you do some reading as well. Philosophical research at university is a little different to research in most other disciplines (especially the natural sciences), in that it is not really about “collecting data” to support or refute explanatory theories. Rather, the thinking that’s involved in philosophical research (as part of one’s preparation for philosophical writing) is more a matter of reflecting critically upon the problems in front of one. Researching the writings of other philosophers should, therefore, be primarily directed towards helping you with that reflection rather than aiming at gathering together and reporting on “the relevant findings” on a particular topic. In many other disciplines, a “literature review” is an important research skill, and sometimes philosophy academics do do such reviews – but it is rare that philosophy students are asked to do one.

What, then, to read? It should be clear from your lectures and tutorials what some starting points for your reading might be. (All courses provide reading guides; many also have booklets of reading material.) Your tutor and lecturer are also available for consultation on what readings you might begin with for any particular topic in that subject. Independent research can also uncover useful sources, and evidence of this in your essay can be a pleasing sign of intellectual independence. Make sure, though, that what you come up with is relevant to the topic. (See Section 5.2 below on relevance.) Whichever way you proceed, your reading should be purposive and selective.

In the case of essay questions that refer to a particular text, you should familiarise yourself thoroughly with this text. Usually, such a text will be a primary text, i.e. one in which a philosopher writes directly about a philosophical issue. Texts on or about a primary text are called secondary texts. (Many philosophical works will combine these two tasks, and discuss other philosophical texts while also dealing directly with a philosophical issue.) Some secondary texts can be helpful to students. However, don’t think you will only ever understand a primary text if you have a nice friendly secondary text to take you by the hand through the primary text. More often than not, you need to have a good grasp of the primary text in order to make sense of the secondary text.

How much to read? The amount of reading you do should be that which maximises the quality of your thinking – that is, you should not swamp yourself with vast slabs of text that you can’t digest, but nor should you starve your mind of ideas to chew over. There is, of course, no simple rule for determining this optimal amount. Be wary, though, of falling into the vice of looking for excuses not to read some philosopher or text, as in “Oh, that’s boring old religious stuff” or “She’s one of those obscure literary feminist types”, or “In X Department they laugh at you if you mention those authors in tutes”. If someone wants a reason not to think, they’ll soon come up with one.

Philosophical writings

Most philosophical writings come in either of two forms: books or articles. Articles appear either in books that are edited anthologies or in academic journals, such as Philosophical Quarterly or Australasian Journal of Philosophy. Some academic journals are also on the internet. Most articles in the journals are written by professional philosophers for professional philosophers; similarly with many books. But by no means let this put you off. Everyone begins philosophy at the deep end – it’s really the only kind there is!

There are, however, many books written for student audiences. Some of these are general introductions to philosophy as a whole; others are introductions to particular areas or issues (eg biomedical ethics or philosophy of science). Among the general introductions are various philosophical dictionaries, encyclopedias and “companions”. These reference works collect short articles on a wide range of topics and can be very useful starting points for newcomers to a topic. Among the most useful of the general reference works are:

  • Edward Craig, ed., The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (10 vols.) (London: Routledge, 1998)
  • Paul Edwards, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (8 vols.) (New York: Macmillan, 1967)
  • Robert Audi, ed., The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999)
  • Ted Honderich, ed., The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995)
  • Simon Blackburn, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996)
  • Thomas Mautner, ed., The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy (London: Penguin, 1998)
  • J.O. Urmson and Jonathan Ree, eds., The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers (London: Routledge, 1993)
  • Edward N. Zalta, ed., The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (an internet-based reference work: )

Note taking

Note taking, like your reading, should not be random, but ought to be guided by the topic in question and by your particular lines of response to the issues involved. Note taking for philosophy is very much an individual art, which you develop as you progress. By and large it is not of much use to copy out reams of text as part of your researches. Nor is it generally helpful to read a great number of pages without making any note of what they contain for future reference. But between these two extremes it is up to you to find the mean that best helps you in getting your thoughts together.

Libraries and electronic resources

The University’s Baillieu Library (including the Institute of Education Resource Centre), which is open to all members of the University, contains more than 2,500 years’ worth of philosophical writings. The best way to become acquainted with them is by using them, including using the catalogues (including the Baillieu’s on-line catalogues and subject resources web-pages), following up a work’s references (and references in the references), intelligent browsing of the shelves, etc.

In the main Baillieu Library, the philosophical books are located (mostly) between 100–199 in the Dewey decimal system, and philosophical journals are located in the basement. The Reference section on the ground floor also has some relevant works. The Education Resource Centre also has a good philosophy collection.

In addition to hard-copy philosophical writings, there is also a variety of electronic resources in philosophy, mostly internet-based. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy was already mentioned above. Links to other useful internet sites (such as the Australasian Association of Philosophy website) can be found through the Baillieu Library’s web-page and the Philosophy Department’s web-page.

A strong word of warning, however, for the would-be philosophical web-surfer: because anyone can put material on a website, all kinds of stuff, of varying levels of quality, is out there – and new-comers to philosophy are usually not well placed to sort their way through it. Unless you have a very good understanding of what you’re looking for – and what you’re not looking for – most of you will be much better off simply carefully reading and thinking about a central text for your course, eg Descartes’ First Meditation, rather than wandering about the internet clicking on all the hits for “Descartes”. Exercise your mind, not your index finger.

Writing your essay

Planning and structuring your essay

It is very important that you plan your essay, so that you have an idea of what you are going to write before you start to write it. Of course, you will most likely alter things in later drafts, but you should still start off by having a plan. Planning your essay includes laying out a structure. It is very important that your essay has a clearly discernible structure, ie that it is composed of parts and that these parts are logically connected. This helps both you and your reader to be clear about how your discussion develops, stage by stage, as you work through the issues at hand.

Poor essay structure is one of the most common weaknesses in student philosophy essays. Taking the time to work on the structure of your essay is time well spent, especially since skill in structuring your thoughts for presentation to others should be among the more enduring things you learn at university. A common trap that students fall into is to start their essay by writing the first sentence, then writing another one that seems to follow that one, then another one that sort of fits after that one, then another that might or might not have some connection with the previous one, and so on until the requisite 1,500 words are used up. The result is usually a weak, rambling essay.

There are, of course, no hard and fast rules about how to structure a philosophy essay. Again, it is a skill you develop through practice, and much will depend on the particular topic at hand. Nonetheless, it might be helpful to begin by developing an essay structure around the basic distinction between your exposition and your critical discussion (as discussed above). In this it will be important that you make clear who is putting forward which point, that is, make it clear whether you are presenting your own thoughts or are expounding someone else’s. (Again, confusion in this regard is a common problem in student essays.) It can often help your structuring if you provide headings for different sections (possibly numbered or lettered). Again, this helps both your reader to follow your discussion and you to develop your thoughts. At each stage, show clearly the logical relations between and the reasons for your points, so that your reader can see clearly why you say what you say and can see clearly the development in your discussion.

Another key to structuring your essay can be found in the old adage “Tell ’em what you’re gonna tell ’em. Tell ’em. Then tell ’em what you’ve told ’em”, which provides you with a ready-made structure: Introduction, Main Body, and Conclusion.

In your Introduction, first introduce the issues the essay is concerned with. In doing so, try to state briefly just what the problem is and (if there is space) why it is a problem. This also applies, of course, to issues covered in text-focused essay topics. Next, tell the reader what it is that you are going to do about those problems in the Main Body. This is usually done by giving a brief sketch or overview of the main points you will present, a “pre-capitulation”, so to speak, of your essay’s structure. This is one way of showing your reader that you have a grasp (indeed, it helps you get a grasp) of your essay as a structured and integrated whole, and gives them some idea of what to expect by giving them an idea of how you have decided to answer the question. Of course, for reasons of space, your Introduction might not be very long, but something along these lines is likely to be useful.

In your Main Body, do what you’ve said you’ll do. Here is where you should present your exposition(s) and your critical discussion(s). Thus, it is here that the main philosophical substance of your essay is to be found. Of course, what that substance is and how you will present it will depend on the particular topic before you. But, whatever the topic, make clear at each stage just what it is you are doing. You can be quite explicit about this. (eg “I shall now present Descartes’ ontological argument for the existence of God, as it is presented in his Fifth Meditation. There will be three stages to this presentation.”) Don’t think that such explicitness must be a sign of an unsophisticated thinker.

A distinct Conclusion is perhaps not always necessary, if your Main Body has clearly “played out” your argument. So you don’t always have to present a grand summation or definitive judgement at the end. Still, often for your own sake, try to state to yourself what it is your essay has achieved and see if it would be appropriate to say so explicitly. Don’t feel that you must come up with earth-shattering conclusions. Of course, utter banality or triviality are not good goals, either. Also, your essay doesn’t always have to conclude with a “solution” to a problem. Sometimes, simply clarifying an issue or problem is a worthy achievement and can merit first-class honours. A good conclusion to a philosophy essay, then, will usually combine a realistic assessment of the ambit and cogency of its claims with a plausible proposal that those claims have some philosophical substance.


What you write in your essay should always be relevant to the question posed. This is another common problem in student essays, so continually ask yourself “Am I addressing the question here?” First-class answers to a question can vary greatly, but you must make sure that your essay responds to the question asked, even if you go on to argue that the question as posed is itself problematic. (eg “To ask ‘What is scientific method?’ presupposes that science follows one basic method. However, I shall argue that there are, in fact, several different scientific methods and that these are neither unified nor consistent.”) Be wary, however, of twisting a topic too far out of shape in order to fit your favoured theme. (You would be ill-advised, for example, to proceed thus: “What is scientific method? This is a question asked by many great minds. But what is a mind? In this essay, I shall discuss the views of Thomas Aquinas on the nature of mind.”)

This requirement of relevance is not intended as an authoritarian constraint on your intellectual freedom. It is part of the skill of paying sustained and focused attention to something put before you – which is one of the most important skills you can develop at university. If you do have other philosophical interests that you want to pursue (such as Aquinas on mind), then please do pursue them, in addition to writing your essay on the set topic. At no stage does the requirement of relevance prevent you from pursuing your other interests.

Citing Philosophical “Authorities”

There might be occasions when you want to quote other philosophers and writers apart from when you are quoting them because they are the subject of your essay. There are two basic reasons why you might want to do this. First, you might quote someone because their words constitute a good or exemplary expression or articulation of an idea you are dealing with, whether as its proponent, critic, or simply its chronicler. (eg “As Nietzsche succinctly put the point, ‘There are no moral phenomena at all, only a moral interpretation of phenomena’.*”) You may or may not want to endorse the idea whose good expression you have quoted, but simply want to use the philosopher as a spokesperson for or example of that view. But be clear about what you think the quote means and be careful about what you are doing with the quote. It won’t do all the work for you.

The second reason you might want to quote a philosopher is because you think their words constitute an “authoritative statement” of a view. Here you want to use the fact that, eg Bertrand Russell maintained that there are two kinds of knowledge of things (namely, knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description) in support of your claim that there are two such kinds of knowledge of things. However, be very careful in doing this, for the nature of philosophical authority is not so simple here. That is to say, what really matters is not that Bertrand Russell the man held that view; what matters are his reasons for holding that view. So, when quoting philosophers for this second reason, be careful that you appreciate in what exactly the authority lies – which means that you should show that you appreciate why Russell maintained that thesis. Of course, you can’t provide long arguments for every claim you make or want to make use of; every essay will have its enabling but unargued assumptions. But at least be clear about these. (eg “For the purposes of this essay, I shall adopt Russell’s thesis* that …”).

* Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, trans. R.J. Hollingdale (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973 [first German ed.1886]), Sec. 108.

* See Bertrand Russell, The Problems of Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967 [first pub. 1912]), Ch. 5.


Philosophy is by its nature a relatively abstract and generalising business. (Note that abstractness and generality are not the same thing. Nor do vagueness and obscurity automatically attend them.) Sometimes a longish series of general ideas and abstract reasonings can become difficult for the reader (and often the writer) to follow. It can often help, therefore, to use some concrete or specific examples in your discussion. (Note that there can be different levels of concreteness and specificity in examples.)

Examples can be taken from history, current events, literature, and so on, or can be entirely your own invention. Exactly what examples you employ and just how and why you use them will, of course, depend on the case. Some uses might be: illustration of a position, problem or idea to help make it clearer; evidence for, perhaps even proof of, a proposition; a counter-example; a case-study to be returned to at various points during the essay; or a problem for a theory or viewpoint to be applied to. Again, be clear about what the example is and how and why you use it. Be careful not to get distracted by, or bogged down in, your examples. Brevity is usually best.

English expression

There’s another old saying: “If you can’t say what you mean, then you can’t mean what you say” – and this very much applies to philosophical writing. Thus, in writing philosophically, you must write clearly and precisely. This means that good philosophical writing requires a good grasp of the language in which it is written, including its grammar and vocabulary. (See Section 9.3 for advice for people from non-English speaking backgrounds.) A high standard of writing skills is to be expected of Arts graduates. Indeed, this sort of skill will last longer than your memory of, for example, the three parts of the Platonic soul (though it is also hoped that some of the content of what you study will also stick). So use your time at university (in all your subjects) to develop these skills further.

Having a mastery of a good range of terms, being sensitive to the subtleties of their meaning, and being able to construct grammatically correct and properly punctuated sentences are essential to the clear articulation and development of your thoughts. Think of grammar, not as some old-fashioned set of rules of linguistic etiquette, but rather as the “internal logic” of a sentence, that is, as the relationships between the words within a sentence which enable them to combine to make sense.

Virtually all sentences in philosophical writing are declarative (ie. make statements), as opposed to interrogative, imperative or exclamatory types of sentences. There is some place, though, for interrogative sentences, ie. questions. (Note that, in contrast, this guide, which is not in the essay genre, contains many imperative sentences, ie. commands.) As you craft each (declarative) sentence in your essay, remember the basics of sentence construction. Make clear what the sentence is about (its subject) and what you are saying about it (the predicate). Make clear what the principal verb is in the predicate, since it is what usually does the main work in saying something about the subject. Where a sentence consists of more than one clause (as many do in philosophical writing), make clear what work each clause is doing. Attend closely, then, to each and every sentence you write so that its sense is clear and is the sense you intend it to have. Think carefully about what it is you want each particular sentence to do (in relation to both those sentences immediately surrounding it and the essay as a whole) and structure your sentence so that it does what you want it to do. To help you with your own sentence construction skills, when reading others’ philosophical works (or indeed any writing) attend closely to the construction of each sentence so as to be alive to all the subtleties of the text.

Good punctuation is an essential part of sentence construction. Its role is to help to display the grammar of a sentence so that its meaning is clear. As an example of how punctuation can fundamentally change the grammar and, hence, meaning of a sentence, compare (i) “Philosophers, who argue for the identity of mind and brain, often fail to appreciate the radical consequences of that thesis.” and (ii) “Philosophers who argue for the identity of mind and brain often fail to appreciate the radical consequences of that thesis.” In the first sentence it is asserted (falsely, as it happens) that all philosophers argue for the identity of mind and brain; in the second, only some philosophers are said to argue for the identity of mind and brain. Only the punctuation differs in the two strings of identical words, and yet the meanings of the sentences are very different. Confusions over this sort of thing are common weaknesses in student essays, and leave readers asking themselves “What exactly is this student trying to say?”

It will be assumed that you can spell – which is not a matter of pressing the “spell-check” key on a word-processor. A good dictionary and a good thesaurus should always be within reach as you write your essay.

Also, try to shorten and simplify sentences where you can do so without sacrificing the subtlety and inherent complexity of the discussion. Where a sentence is becoming too long or complex, it is likely that too many ideas are being bundled up together too closely. Stop and separate your ideas out. If an idea is a good or important one, it will usually deserve its own sentence.

Your “intra-sentential logic” should work very closely with the “inter-sentential logic” of your essay, ie. with the logical relations between your sentences. (This “inter-sentential logic” is what “logic” is usually taken to refer to.) For example, to enable sentences P and Q to work together to yield sentence R as a conclusion, you need to make clear that there are elements within P and Q which connect up to yield R. Consider the following example: “Infanticide is the intentional killing of a human being. However, murder is regarded by all cultures as morally abhorrent. Therefore, people who commit infanticide should be punished.” This doesn’t work as an argument, because the writer has not constructed sentences which provide the connecting concepts in the various subjects and predicates, even though each sentence is grammatically correct (and possibly even true).

If you are concerned to write not only clearly and precisely, but also with some degree of grace and style (and I hope you are), it’s still best to get the clarity and precision right first, in a plain, straightforward way, and then to polish things up afterwards to get the style and grace you want. But don’t sacrifice clarity and precision for the sake of style and grace – be prepared to sacrifice that beautiful turn of phrase if its presence is going to send your discussion down an awkward path of reasoning. Aim to hit the nail on the head rather than make a loud bang. What you are likely to find, however, is that a philosophy essay which really is clear and precise will have a large measure of grace and style in its very clarity and precision.

Remember that obscurity is not a sign of profundity. (Some profound thought may well be difficult to follow, but that doesn’t mean that one can achieve profundity merely through producing obscure, difficult-to-read writing.) Your marker is interested in what’s actually in your essay, not what’s possibly inside your head (or indeed what’s possibly in some book you happen to have referred to in your essay). So avoid hinting at or alluding suggestively to ideas, especially where they are meant to do some important work in your essay. Instead, lay them out explicitly and directly. Of course, you won’t have space to spell out every single idea, so work out which ideas do the most important work and make sure that you at least get those ideas clearly articulated. In expounding a text or problem that ultimately just is vague, muddled, or obscure, try to convey such vagueness, muddle or obscurity clearly, rather than simply reproducing it in your own writing. That is, be clear that and how a text or problem has such features, and then perhaps do your best to make matters clearer.

Despite these stern pronouncements, don’t be afraid of sometimes saying things which happen to sound a little odd, if you have tried various formulations and think you have now expressed your ideas just as they should be expressed. Philosophy is often an exploratory business, and new ways of seeing and saying things can sometimes be a part of that exploration.

The need for clarity and precision in philosophical writing sometimes means that you need to stipulate your own meaning for a term. When you want to use a particular word in a particular way for the purposes of your essay – as a “technical term” – be clear about it. (eg “In this essay, I shall intend ‘egoism’ to mean …”) Also, be consistent in your technical meanings, or else note when you are not. Be wary, though, of inventing too many neologisms or being too idiosyncratic in your stipulations.

With regard to what “authorial pronoun” to adopt in a philosophy essay, it’s standard to write plainly in the first person singular (“I”, “me”, “my”, etc.) rather than use the royal “we” (as in “we shall argue that …”), or the convoluted quasi-legal indirect form (“It is submitted that …”), or the scientific objectivity of a physics experimental report. Nonetheless, stick closer to “I argue”, “I suggest”, “my definition”, etc., than to “I wish”, “I hate”, “my feeling”, etc. A philosophy essay is still something more intellectual and formal than a personal reminiscence, polemic, or proclamation. In terms of audience, it’s probably best to think of your reader as someone who is intelligent, open to discussion and knows a little about the topic you’re writing on, but perhaps is not quite clear or decided about the issues, or needs convincing of the view you want to put forward, or is curious about what you think about the issues.

Try also to use non-discriminatory language, ie. language which does not express or imply inequality of worth between people on the basis of sex, gender, race, ethnicity, sexuality, and so on. As you write, you will be considering carefully your choice of words to express your thoughts. You will almost always find that it is possible to avoid discriminatory language by rephrasing your sentences.

Other things to avoid:

  • waffle and padding
  • vagueness and ambiguity
  • abbreviations (this guide I’m writing isn’t an eg. of what’s req’d. in a phil. essay)
  • colloquialisms (which can really get up your reader’s nose)
  • writing whose syntax merely reflects the patterns of informal speech
  • unnecessary abstractness or indirectness
  • unexplained jargon
  • flattery and invective
  • overly-rhetorical questions (do you really need me to tell you what they are?) and other flourishes

There are many guides to good writing available. Anyone who writes (whether in the humanities or the sciences, whether beginners or experienced professionals) will do well to have some on hand. Most good bookshops and libraries will have some. Among the most consulted works are (check for the latest editions):

  • J. M. Williams and G. C. Colomb, Style: Toward Clarity and Grace (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995)
  • W. Strunk and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, 4th ed. (New York: Longman, 2000)
  • E. Gowers, The Complete Plain Words, 3rd ed. (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987)
  • R. W. Burchfield, ed., The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996)
  • Pam Peters, The Cambridge Australian English Style Guide (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1995)
  • Australian Government Publishing Service, Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers, 5th ed. (Canberra: AGPS, 1995)

Vocabulary of logical argument

Closely related to the above points about English expression is the importance of having a good grasp of what can rather generally be called “the vocabulary of logical argument”. These sorts of terms are crucial in articulating clearly and cogently a logical line of argument. Such argumentation will, of course, be of central importance in whatever discipline you are studying, indeed in any sphere of life that requires effective thinking and communication. I have in mind terms such as these (grouped a little loosely):

all, any, every, most, some, none, a, an, the
that, this, it, he, she, they
if . . . , then. . . ; if and only if . . . , then . . . ; unless
either . . . or . . .; neither . . . nor . . .
not, is, are
therefore, thus, hence, so, because, since, follows, entails, implies, infer, consequence, conditional upon
moreover, furthermore
which, that, whose
and, but, however, despite, notwithstanding, nevertheless, even, though, still
possibly, necessarily, can, must, may, might, ought, should
true, false, probable, certain
sound, unsound, valid, invalid, fallacious, supported, proved, contradicted, rebutted, refuted, negated
logical, illogical, reasonable, unreasonable, rational, irrational
assumption, premise, belief, claim, proposition
argument, reason, reasoning, evidence, proof

Most of these are quite simple terms, but they are crucial in argumentative or discursive writing of all kinds. (Many are themselves the subject of study in logic, a branch of philosophy). The sloppy use of these sorts of terms is another common weakness in students’ philosophy essays. Pay close and careful attention to how you employ them. Moreover, pay close and careful attention to how the authors you read use them. For further discussion of some of these terms and others, see:

  • Basic Philosophical Vocabulary, prepared by the staff of the Philosophy Department and available from the programs Office
  • Wesley C. Salmon, Logic, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1973)
  • Antony Flew, Thinking About Thinking (London: Fontana, 1985)
  • Graham Priest, Logic: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)
  • Joel Rudinow and Vincent E. Barry, Invitation to Critical Thinking, 4th ed. (Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt Brace, 1999)

Revising your essay

It is virtually essential that you write a first draft of your essay and then work on that draft to work towards your finished essay. Indeed, several drafts may well be necessary in order to produce your best possible work. It is a rare philosopher indeed who can get things perfectly right on the first attempt, so be prepared to revise and re-develop what you write. Don’t be too precious about what you have written, if it appears that it should be sacrificed in the revision process. There is usually a very marked difference between essays which are basically first draft rush-jobs done the night before they are due and those which have been revised and polished. Give yourself time to revise by starting writing early on. For most philosophy students, the greater part of the work in essay writing is in the writing, not in the preliminary researches and planning stages. So be wary of thinking “I’ve done all the research. I only need to write up my notes, which I can do the night before the essay’s due”. This is likely to lead to a weak, perhaps non-existent, essay (and very likely a sleepless night).

Word limit

Stick to the word limit given for your essay. Why are word limits imposed? First, to give the markers a fair basis for comparing student essays. Second, to give you the opportunity to practise the discipline of working creatively under constraints. Skill in this discipline will stand you in very good stead in any sphere where circumstances impose limitations. Again, word limits are not constraints on your intellectual freedom. Outside your essay you are free to write without limit. But even there you’ll probably find that your creativity is improved by working under a self-imposed discipline.

As a general rule, most student essays that fall well short of the word limit are weak or lazy attempts at the task, and most essays that go well over the limit are not much stronger or the result of much harder work – the extra length is often due to unstructured waffle or padding which the writer hasn’t thought enough about so as to edit judiciously. If you structure your essay clearly, you’ll find it easier to revise and edit, whether in order to contract or expand it. (“Hmm, let’s see: section 2 is much longer than section 4, but is not as important, so I’ll cut it down. And I should expand section 3, because that’s a crucial step. And I can shift that third paragraph in the Introduction to the Conclusion.”)

Plagiarism and originality


Plagiarism is essentially a form of academic dishonesty or cheating. At university level, such dishonesty is not tolerated and is dealt with severely, usually by awarding zero marks for a plagiarised essay or, in some cases, dismissing a student from the university.

When you submit your essay, you are implicitly stating that the essay is your own original and independent work, that you have not submitted the same work for assessment in another subject, and that where you have made use of other people’s work, this is properly acknowledged. If you know that this is not in fact the case, you are being dishonest. (In a number of university departments, students are in fact required to sign declarations of academic honesty.)

Plagiarism is the knowing but unacknowledged use of work by someone else (including work by another student, and indeed oneself – see below) and which is being presented as one’s own work. It can take a number of forms, including:

  • copying: exactly reproducing another’s words
  • paraphrasing: expressing the meaning of another’s words in different words
  • summarising: reproducing the main points of another’s argument
  • cobbling: copying, paraphrasing or summarising the work of a number of different people and piecing them together to produce one body of text
  • submitting one’s own work when it has already been submitted for assessment in another subject
  • collusion: presenting an essay as your own independent work when in fact it has been produced, in whole or part, in collusion with one or more other people

None of the practices of copying, paraphrasing, summarizing or cobbling is wrong in itself, but when one or more is done without proper acknowledgment it constitutes plagiarism. Therefore, all sources must be adequately and accurately acknowledged in footnotes or endnotes. (See Section 7.) Plagiarism from the internet in particular can be a temptation for a certain kind of student. However, be warned: there is a number of very good internet and software tools for identifying plagiarism.

With regard to collusion, it’s undoubtedly often very helpful to discuss one’s work with others, be it other students, family members, friends or teachers. Indeed, philosophy thrives on dialogue. However, don’t kid yourself that you would simply be extending that process if you were to ask your interlocutor to join with you in the writing of your essay, whether by asking them to tell you what you should write or to write down some of their thoughts for you to reproduce in your essay. At the end of the day, you must be the one to decide what goes into your essay.


Students sometimes worry about whether they will be able to develop “original ideas”, especially in light of the fact that nearly every philosophical idea one comes up with seems to have been thought of before by someone else. There is no denying that truly original work in philosophy is well rewarded, but your first aim should be to develop ideas that you think are good and not merely different. If, after arguing for what you believe is right, and arguing in way that you think is good, you then discover that someone else has had the same idea, don’t throw your work away – you should feel vindicated to some extent that your thinking has been congruent with that of another (possibly great) philosopher. (If you have not yet handed your essay in when you make this discovery, make an appropriately placed note to that effect.) Don’t be fooled, however, into thinking that plagiarism can be easily passed off as congruent thinking. Of course, if that other philosopher’s ideas have helped you to develop your ideas, then this is not a matter of congruent ideas but rather of derivative ideas, and this must be adequately acknowledged. If, after developing your ideas, you discover that they are original, then that is an added bonus. But remember that it is more important to be a good philosopher than an original one.

Quotations, footnotes, endnotes and bibliography


Quotations in your essay should be kept to a minimum. The markers know the central texts pretty well already and so don’t need to have pages thereof repeated in front of them. Of course, some quotation will usually be important and useful – sometimes essential – in both exposition and critical discussion.

When you quote the words of someone else directly, you must make the quotation clearly distinct from your own text, using quotation marks. (eg “Descartes said that ‘it is prudent never to trust completely those who have deceived us even once.’* He makes this claim …” – where the words quoted from Descartes are in ‘single quotation marks’. Note that it is relatively arbitrary whether one uses ‘single’ or “double” quotation marks for “first order” quotations, but whichever style you adopt, use it consistently in the one essay.) Alternatively, where the quoted passage is greater than three lines, put the quoted words in a separate indented paragraph, so that your essay would look like this:

In his First Meditation, Descartes argues as follows:

Whatever I have up till now accepted as most true I have acquired either from the senses or through the senses. But from time to time I have found that the senses deceive, and it is prudent never to trust completely those who have deceived us even once.*

In this essay I shall argue that prudence does not in fact require us to distrust our senses and that Descartes’s sceptical method is therefore seriously flawed.

In both cases, the quotations must be given proper referencingin a footnote or endnote.

When you are not quoting another person directly, but are still making use of their work – as in indirect quotations (eg “Descartes says that it is wise not to trust something that has deceived us before”*), paraphrases, summaries, and cobblings you must still acknowledge your debts, using footnotes or endnotes.

* Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy, trans. John Cottingham (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986 [first French ed., 1641]), p. 12.

Footnotes and endnotes

Footnotes appear at the foot of the same page on which the cited material appears, clearly separated from the main body of the text, each one clearly numbered. Endnotes appear at the end of the essay, again clearly separated from the main body of text, numbered and headed “Endnotes” or “Notes”. Either method is acceptable, but you should choose one and stick with it throughout the one essay.

Below are some examples of how to put the relevant referencing information in footnotes and endnotes. This is not intended as an exercise in pedantry, but as a guide to how to provide the information needed for adequate referencing. The reason we provide this information is to enable our readers to find the sources we use in order to verify them and to allow them to pursue the material further if it interests them. In your own researches you will come to value good referencing in the texts you read as a helpful source of further references on a topic. Again, it is this sort of research skill that an Arts graduate will be expected to have mastered.

There are various conventions for writing up footnotes and endnotes. The Philosophy Department does not require that any particular convention be followed, only that you be consistent in your use of the convention that you do choose. For other conventions see the style guides mentioned above, or simply go to some texts published by reputable publishers and see what formats they employ.

Imagine, then, that the following are endnotes at the end of your essay. I will explain them below.


  1. James Rachels, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), p. 25.
  2. Philippa Foot, “Moral Relativism”, in Michael Krausz and Jack W. Meiland, eds., Relativism: Cognitive and Moral (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1982), p. 155.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid., p. 160.
  5. Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, trans. H. J. Paton (New York: Harper and Row, 1964 [first German ed., 1785]), p. 63.
  6. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, (London: Dent, 1973 [first pub. 1651]),p. 65.
  7. Rachels, The Elements, p. 51.
  8. Peter Winch, “The Universalizability of Moral Judgements”, The Monist 49 (1965), p. 212.
  9. Antony Duff, “Legal Punishment”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2001 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), at 15 June 2003, sec. 6.

Notes explained

  1. This is your first reference to a book called The Elements of Moral Philosophy. The title is given in full and in italics. If you are unable to use italics, then you should underline the title. The book’s author is James Rachels. It’s the 2nd edition of that book, which was published in New York, by the publishers McGraw-Hill, in 1993. The page you have referred to in your main text is page 25
  2. This is your first reference to Philippa Foot’s article, “Moral Relativism”, the title of which is put in “quotation marks”. This article appeared in a book (title in italics) which is an anthology of different articles, and which was edited by Krausz and Meiland (names in full). The rest is in the same style as note (1)
  3. “Ibid.” is short for “ibidem”, which means “in the same place” in Latin. Use it on its own when you want to refer to exactly the same work and page number as in the immediately preceding note. So here the reference is again to Foot’s article at page 155
  4. Ditto, except this time you refer to a different page in Foot’s article, namely page 160
  5. This is reference to a book by Kant. Same book details as per note (1), except that, because this is a translation, you include the translator’s name, and the date of the first edition in the original language
  6. This is a book reference again, so it’s the same as note (1), except that, because it’s an old book, you include the date of the original edition. (How old does a book have to be before it merits this treatment? There is no settled view. Note, though, that this convention is not usually followed for ancient authors.)
  7. Here you are referring to Rachels’ book again, but, because you are not in the very next note after a reference to it, you can’t use “ibid.”. Simply give the author’s surname and a short title of the book, plus page reference. There is also a common alternative to this, whereby you give the surname, and write “op. cit.” (which is short for “opere citato”, which is Latin for “in the work already cited”) and page reference (eg “Rachels, op. cit., p. 51.”) Your reader then has to scan back over the notes to see what that “op.” was exactly. The first option (author plus short title) is usually easier on the reader
  8. This is a reference to an article by Peter Winch in a journal called The Monist. The article’s title is in “quotes”, the journal title is in italics. The volume of the journal is 49, the year of publication is 1965, the page referred to is p. 212
  9. This is a reference to an article in the internet-based Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The article is titled “Legal Punishment” and was written by Antony Duff. The Encyclopedia was edited by Edward N. Zalta. Note that I have basically followed the mode of citation that the Encyclopedia itself recommends. (This is one sign of the site being a reputable one. Where a site makes such a recommendation, it’s best to follow it.) I have, however, also added the date on which the article was retrieved from the site, and put the author’s given name first, to be consistent with the other footnotes. I have also added the reference to section 6, in an effort to be more precise as to where in the article the material I used came from. Since web pages aren’t numbered in the manner of hard copy works, it will help if you are able to refer to some other feature, such as paragraphs or sections, so as to pin-point your reference. In the absence of a site recommending a mode of citation to its own material, the basic information needed for adequate citation of internet-based material is (where identifiable) the author, the document title, the year the document was created, the website name, the uniform resource locator (URL) in <arrow-brackets>, date of retrieval, and a pin-point reference.*

* I am here following the mode of citation of internet materials recommended in Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc, Australian Guide to Legal Citation, 2nd ed. (Melbourne: Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc, 2002), pp. 70-73. I have, though, added the desirability of a pin-point reference.


At the end of your essay (after your endnotes, if used) you should list in a bibliography all of the works referred to in your notes, as well as any other works you consulted in researching and writing your essay. The list should be in alphabetical order, going by authors’ surnames. The format should be the same as for your notes, except that you drop the page references and should put surnames first. So the bibliography of our mock-essay above would look like this:

  • Duff, Antony, “Legal Punishment”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2001 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), at 15 June 2003
  • Foot, Philippa, “Moral Relativism”, in Michael Krausz and Jack Meiland, eds., Relativism: Cognitive and Moral (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1982)
  • Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan (London: Dent, 1973 [first pub.1651])
  • Kant, Immanuel, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, trans. H.J. Paton (New York: Harper and Row, 1964 [first German ed. 1785])
  • Rachels, James, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, 2nd ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993)
  • Winch, Peter, “The Universalizability of Moral Judgements”, The Monist 49 (1965)

Presentation of essays and seeking advice


Generally, you should present an essay that is legible (hand-writing is OK, but typed or word-processed essays are preferable), in English, on one side of pieces of paper that are somewhere in the vicinity of A4 size and are fixed together. You should attach a completed Cover Sheet provided by the Philosophy program. Plastic document covers, spiral binding and other forms of presentational paraphernalia are not necessary (nor are they usually even desirable, as they mostly just get in the marker’s way).

Late essays

Late essays are penalised. (For details of penalties consult the Philosophy program’s notice board.)

Essays not handed in

Essays not handed in at all get zero marks. An essay that is handed in but gets a mark below 50 (and so is technically a “failed” essay) still gets some marks. (At least, it will so long as it’s not so extremely late that the deducted marks wipe out all the marks it would have received if handed in on time.) All marks received for your essay (whether pass or fail) go toward your final score in the subject. Therefore, even if you think your essay is bound to fail (but please let your marker be the judge of that), or the due date has already passed, or both, it is still in your interests to hand your essay in.

Tutors and lecturers

Philosophy staff are not there just to be listened to by you; they are also there to listen to you. So don’t hesitate to contact your tutor or lecturer to discuss questions or problems you have concerning your work.

If you have a legitimate excuse, you may be granted an extension on the due date for your essay by the lecturer in charge. Similarly, special consideration may also be granted when illness or other circumstances adversely affect your work. Applications for special consideration are made online via the Special Consideration web page.

Student counselling

Some personal or non-philosophical academic difficulties you might have you might want to discuss with someone other than your tutor or lecturer. Student Counselling and Psychological Services are there for you to discuss all sorts of problems you might encounter. Please consult your student diary for details on the counselling service.

English language assistance

As noted above, good philosophical writing requires a good grasp of the language in which it is written. If you are from a non-English speaking background and are having difficulties with your English expression in an academic context, you might like to make use of the services provided by Student Services Academic Skills . Many native English speakers, too, can benefit from short “refresher” courses and workshops run by the Centre. Please consult your student diary for details about this service.

A bit on Philosophy exams

Essays of the sort discussed so far in this guide are not the only form of assessment in the Philosophy program – examinations are also set. What is to be said about them?

First, not much that is different from what’s been said above about philosophy essays. This is because what you write in a philosophy exam is none other than a philosophy essay. Have a look at past philosophy exam papers, in the Gibson and Baillieu libraries, to get a feel for them. The only basic difference between essays and exams is the matter of what constraints you’re working under. Essays have word limits; exams have time limits. Again, stick to them. (Actually, you’ll be made to stick to them by the exam invigilators.)

It’s best, then, to think about how long to spend writing on an exam essay topic, rather than about how many words to write on it. Simple arithmetic will tell you how much time to spend on each exam question. (eg if you have a 2-hour exam and have to answer 3 questions, each worth one-third of the exam mark, then spend 40 minutes on each question.) Avoid the trap of “borrowing time” from a later question in order to perfect your answer to an earlier question, and then working faster on the later questions to catch up on lost time – this is likely to get you in a tangle. There are no word limits in philosophy exam essays, but don’t think that the more you scrawl across the page, the more marks you’ll get. Nonetheless, use the time you’ve got so as to maximise your display of your philosophical understanding and skills in answering the question.

Planning and structuring remain very important in exam essays. With regard to the niceties of footnotes, endnotes and bibliographies, etc., these are not necessary, so don’t waste time on these. However, if you quote or refer to a specific passage from a text, do indicate clearly that it is a quotation or reference. (The principle of being clear as to who is saying what remains central.) If you have the reference handy, just put it briefly in the text of your exam essay. (eg “As Descartes says in Meditation I (p. 12), . . .” or “‘[I]t is prudent never to trust completely those who have deceived us even once’ (Descartes, Meditation I, p. 12)”.) Generally speaking, you will show your familiarity with any relevant texts by how you handle them in your discussion. This is also true for your non-exam essays.

Your preparation for the exam should have been done well before entering the exam hall. Note that various subjects have restrictions on what texts and other items can be brought into the exam hall. (Consult the Philosophy program’s notice board for details.) Many subjects will have “closed book” exams. Even if an exam is “open book”, if you are properly prepared, you should not need to spend much time at all consulting texts or notes during the exam itself.

You won’t have time for redrafting and revising your exam essay (which makes planning and structuring your answers before you start writing all the more important). If you do want to delete something, just cross it out clearly. Don’t waste time with liquid paper or erasers. Write legibly. Don’t wr. “point form” sav. time. Diff. kn. mean. use incomp. sent.

Finally, read the instructions at the beginning of the exam paper. They are important. (eg it’s not a good strategy to answer two questions from Part A, when the Instructions tell you to answer two questions, one from Part A and one from Part B.) Note the (somewhat quaint) University practice of starting Reading Time some time before the stated time for the exam. Philosophy exams usually have 15 minutes of reading time. (Check for each of your exams.) So, if your exam timetable says the exam is at 2.15 pm, with reading time of 15 minutes, then the reading time starts at 2.00 pm and the writing time starts at 2.15pm – so get to the exam hall well before 2.00 pm. Reading time is very important. Use it to decide which questions you’ll answer and to start planning your answers.

Checklist of questions

  • Do I understand the essay question? Do I know when the essay is due?
  • Do I know which texts to consult? Do I know where to find them?
  • Have I made useful notes from my reading of the relevant texts?
  • Have I made a plan of how I’ll approach the question in my essay?
  • Have I given myself enough time to draft and redraft my essay?
  • Have I written a clearly structured essay? Is it clear what each stageis doing? Do I do what I say I’ll do in my Introduction?
  • Have I clearly distinguished exposition and critical discussion? Have I given a fair and accurate account of the author(s) in question?
  • Is my response to the topic relevant? Do I answer the question? Have I kept my essay within the general bounds of the topic?
  • Have I displayed a good grasp of the vocabulary of logical argument? Are my arguments logically valid and sound? Are my claims supported by reasons? Am I consistent within my essay?
  • Is my English expression clear and precise? Are my grammar, punctuation and spelling correct? Have I said what I meant to say? Is my writing legible?
  • Have I fully acknowledged all my sources in footnotes or endnotes? Are my quotations accurate? Have I included a bibliography?
  • Do I need to revise any part of my essay again?
  • Have I made a copy or photocopy of my essay for myself?
  • Have I kept the receipt for my handed-in essay?

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puppy training school central coast

Book Now! 0459 584 978

Dog Training & Puppy Preschool on the Central Coast

Vick’s Dog Tricks is a Central Coast Dog Training business that is dedicated to giving your dog the best start in life. Whether you have a new puppy or an adult dog, Vick’s Dog Tricks can help with all your training and behavioural needs.

  • Doyalson Animal Hospital
  • (02) 4399 2129
  • 423 Scenic Drive, Doyalson, NSW 2262
  • Mon-Fri (8:30am-6:30pm)  Sat (8:30am-5:30pm)

Doyalson Animal Hospital

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Puppy Preschool

Puppy Preschool is a class where your puppy can begin to learn to socialise and interact with humans and other dogs; it is a vital part in a young dog’s development. It is important to start teaching your puppy early if you want an adult dog that is well socialised with both people and other dogs.

 Positive reinforcement training methods are used – rewarding for correct behaviour with treats, toys and your praise. This will build a lifelong bond between you and your pet. By the end of the course your puppy will be calm, and able to lie quietly beside you even with distractions. We will teach you the methods to train your puppy. Your puppy will be a happy, friendly well behaved member of the family that you can proudly take anywhere.


Why do puppies need to go to preschool?

Puppies have a sensitive period of development called the socialisation period. It occurs from about 4 – 14 weeks of age, and any experiences the puppy has during this time can affect later behaviour. Dogs that are isolated during this time are more likely to become hyperactive, aggressive, difficult to train, antisocial and fearful. To develop into normal, friendly and confident adults, puppies need to be regularly handled and need to socialise with other puppies, so that they learn how to communicate. They need to be exposed to new experiences in a non-threatening way, whilst avoiding the disease risks of mixing with other dogs in public places.

 Puppy Preschool is a safe way to socialise your puppy, and start them off on the basics of training. They will learn good manners, which includes basic obedience commands such as “Come”, “Sit”, “Drop”, and “Stay”. All training is based on positive reinforcement. There are also play sessions to teach puppies how to interact. These take place between pairs of puppies with similar temperaments, and only when the instructor has assessed that this is suitable.


The course will also cover such things as:

How dogs learn
Socialization – Dogs, meeting people, life experiences, Environmental sounds & Situations
Calming & settling
Biting and Mouthing
Jumping up
House & family pets
Toilet training
Separation Tolerance
Environmental Enrichment -activities to keep your puppy happy in its backyard
Basic health care
Toys & Games
Car safety

The classes are held on the premises of the veterinary hospital in a safe and friendly environment. They are inside, and therefore can run in any kind of weather.


Courses run for 5 consecutive weeks, puppies must be 6 – 14 weeks old, with at least one vaccination. The first class is an information session for humans only, where we discuss how your puppy learns and give you hints and tips on how to teach them appropriately, as well as how to prepare your home to maximise house training success. The following four sessions are for humans and puppies too!


Want to find out more information or book your puppy into a class?

Contact our friendly staff on (02) 43992129

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summer school new york music

Sign Up For Fall Classes Today!


Third Street Music School Settlement

Come for the music, stay for the community

Summer Programs

Keep the beat all summer long with Third Street Music School!

Check out our camps, classes, and concerts!
Tuition Assistance is available for those who qualify.
Contact Student Services at 212.777.3240 x17 or [email protected]  with questions.
Tuition does not include $40 registration fee.



Join us for a summer adventure! Jump into gardening, yoga, sing-alongs, sprinkler play, cooking and crafts. Third Street’s experienced preschool teachers mix outdoor and indoor activities, group games and creative projects. Just bring your lunch and your imagination!

Ages 2 – 5 | Monday – Friday | June 25 – August 3, 2018

Register for 2, 4 or 6-week camp sessions:
Session 1 – June 25 – July 6 (School is closed July 4)
Session 2 – July 9 – July 20
Session 3 – July 23 – August 3

ClassDateTimePrice – # of weeks (2/4/6)
ToddlersTuesday and Thursday9:00 am – 10:30 am$475 | $850 | $1275
ToddlersTuesday and Thursday10:45 am – 12:15 pm$475 | $850 | $1275
Nearly 3sMonday, Wednesday and Friday9:30 am – 11:30 am$925 | $1650 | $2475
ThreesMonday – Friday9:00 am – 1:00 pm$1675 | $3150 | $4725
Fours/FivesMonday – Friday9:00 am – 2:30 pm$1925 | $3650 | $5475

Music with Pauline

This lively, much loved class encourages toddlers to experiment with movement and music as Pauline sings and plays her guitar.
Ages 18 months – 3.5 years | Wednesday | June 27 – August 1 (Except July 4) | 10:15 – 11:00 am

Plus $40 registration fee


Sibling Discount: Save $100 on each additional sibling.

Youth and Teen Workshops

Chamber Music Workshop

Great for students wishing to advance their chamber music skills or those who are new to playing in a small ensemble, students enjoy summertime camaraderie in this robust program. Open to piano, strings, winds & brass, voice, and guitar students, the workshop offers daily coaching, individual practice, master classes, movement, improvisation, field trips, and other supplemental activities. The workshop culminates in two performances.

Ages 7 – 18 | Monday – Friday | July 2 – July 13, 2018 (Except July 4)
9:30 am – 5:00 pm

Performances: Thursday, July 12 at 12:30 pm and Friday, July 13 at 5:30 pm
Field Trip: Friday, July 6

Audition required for new students. Click here to schedule an audition.

$1200 plus $40 registration fee

Summer Registration Form

Piano Ensemble Workshop

This workshop, for piano students with a minimum of one year of individual piano instruction, focuses on participating in piano ensembles of all sizes. Each student is assigned to both classical repertoire and jazz improvisation ensembles. Students benefit from daily coachings, supervised practice, master classes, performance opportunities, and attend musical field trips. Chorus, Composition, and Music Technology are also included in the daily activities. Audition is not required.

Ages 6 – 18 | Monday – Friday | July 16 – July 27, 2018
9:30 am – 5:00 pm

Performance: Thursday, July 26 at 6:30 pm

$1200 plus $40 registration fee

Summer Registration Form

Dance Workshop

This high-energy summer intensive program is for students with a minimum of one year of experience. Featuring classes in Ballet, Tap, Hip-Hop and African Dance, students take daily technique classes, create and rehearse new works, develop confidence, and make lasting friendships. The workshop culminates with a performance that showcases our students’ amazing accomplishments!

Ages 6 –18 | Monday – Friday | July 16 – August 3, 2018
Junior and Senior Divisions: 10:00 am – 3:00 pm

Performance: Thursday, August 2 at 5:30 pm

$1200 plus $40 registration fee

Summer Registration Form

Musical Theatre Workshop

Students explore the fundamentals of musical theatre in a nurturing and supportive environment as they hone their acting and singing skills and learn theatre style dance. The workshop will culminate in a revue performance of scenes from both classical and contemporary musicals! No experience necessary.

Ages 9 – 14 | Monday – Friday | August 6 – August 10, 2018
9:00 am – 3:30 pm

Performance: Friday, August 10 at 5:00 pm

$600 plus $40 registration fee

Summer Registration Form

Adult Bands and Workshops

Adult Jazz Workshop

Ages 18+ | Wednesdays | June 20 – August 1, 2018 (Except July 4)
12:30 pm – 1:30 pm

Performance: Wednesday, August 1 at 12:00 pm

Open to all adult intermediate students who wish to learn the basics of Jazz improvisation and performance, this workshop is a great opportunity to build skills as part of a group.

$95 plus $40 registration fee

Summer Registration Form

New Horizons Band

Adults 50+ | Wednesdays | June 20 – August 1, 2018 (Except July 4)
10:00 am – 12:00 pm

Performance: Wednesday, August 1 at 12:00 pm

This six-week session consists of a beginning/intermediate ensemble performing traditional works for band, jazz, show tunes, and more, with a performance at the end of the session.

$150 plus $40 registration fee

Summer Registration Form

Individual and Partner Lessons

For all ages | Weekdays | Session 1: June 25 – July 27 (Except July 4) | Session 2: July 30 – August 10

Dust off an old instrument or pick up a new one! Third Street offers individual lessons on over 25 instruments, including voice this summer.

Session30 mins45 mins60 mins
June 25 – July 27$350$425$475
July 30 – August 10$140$170$190
June 25 – July 27$200$250N/A
July 30 – August 10$80$100N/A

Plus $40 registration fee


Have a question? Fill out the form below!

Music in Abe Lebewohl Park

Join us for FREE concerts every Thursday in June and July at 12:30 pm! Click here for this year’s lineup.

Lessons & Classes

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Summer Music Camps  Programs

Plan Your 2018 Summer of Music!

Summer music programs are indispensable whether you’re thinking about majoring in music or simply wanting more music in your life. Visit the camps and programs on this page to learn more. This list is updated through the spring, so check back often.

Summer music camps and programs 18


How to Get Started

Click on these links to learn more:

1. Music camps and programs in the U.S. and abroad: Camp & Program Ads and Geographical Listings

2. Guidance for students and parents: How to Choose a Summer Music Program .

3. Job opportunities for college students: Summer Jobs Section .


summer camps and programs (performing arts abroad)

2018 Geographical Listings by State + International

(additional programs will be added regularly through Spring 2018!)


Alion Baltic International Music Festival (Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Sweden)

Focus: Piano, all orchestral instruments, voice, chamber music, guitar, composition.

Dates: July 10-August 7

Boston Conservatory Opera Intensive at Valencia (Spain)

Focus: Serious opera study for undergraduates and recent undergraduates, voice major not required.

Dates: June 3-23

Film Scoring Summer Program (Bulgaria)

Focus: Scoring, music supervision, conducting, MIDI mock-ups.

Dates: June 30-July 23

The Ingenium Academy International Music Summer School (London, UK)

Focus: Orchestral, vocal, piano, saxophone, conducting, chamber music, composition.

Dates: July 15-Aug.12

Music & Culture Summer Camp by Reina Sofia School of Music (Spain)

Focus: Instrumental technique, theory classes. (Program is taught in English with Spanish lessons.)

Dates: July 2-15

Oberlin in Italy

Focus: Intensive Italian opera training program in Tuscany (for singers, pianists, instrumentalists, conductors, stage directors, design & production artists). Includes private lessons, coaching, master classes, language study.

Dates: July 7-Aug. 7

Performing Arts Abroad music (Various Countries)

Focus: Music programs abroad; all instruments and areas of study.

Dates: Rolling start dates and application deadlines

Veneto Jazz Festival and Workshop (Italy)

Focus: Jazz lessons, master classes, theory, performances.

Dates: July 21-28

VSO Orchestral Institute at Whistler (Canada)

Focus: Orchestral + chamber music performance for all orchestral instruments. Concerto competition.

Dates: June 24-July 3


Advanced Suzuki Institute at Stanford University

Focus: Violin & Viola Books 4-10 and beyond; Cello Books 3-10 and beyond .

Dates: August 5-9

Bocal Majority Bassoon and Oboe Camp

Focus: bassoon, oboe, clarinet.

Dates: various dates

FOOSA Festival/Fresno Summer Orchestra Academy

Focus: All orchestral instruments including harp (no piano); intensive daily rehearsals, daily private lessons, side-by-side 120-piece faculty/student orchestra; performance at Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles.

Dates: June 10-24

Idyllwild Arts Summer Program

Focus: jazz, classical: symphony orchestra, wind symphony, band, piano performance, songwriting, choral music, ESL programs.

Dates: June 24 – August 5

Jazz Camp West

Focus: Instrumental Program, piano, guitar, bass, drums, reeds, percussion, steel drums, specialty instruments. Combos; jazz and Latin big band; theory and ear training; performance workshops. Advanced Instrumental Track, Advanced Piano Intensive, Vocal Intensive Program, improvisation, (scatting), singing with a professional trio, jazz ensemble, repertoire, All-Camp Gospel Choir

Dates: June 23-30

SJW Jazz Institute

Focus: Jazz, vocals, combo, improvisation.

Dates: July 29-August 3

Stanford Summer Arts Institute

Focus: Session 1: Music Matters – exploring a wide range of genres from classical to popular with opportunities to compose and perform. Session 2: Music, Technology & Culture – analyze popular music and its technologies. No prior music experience required.

Dates: Session 1: June 25 – July 14; Session 2: July 17-Aug. 4

University of the Pacific Music Camp

Focus: Brubeck Institute Jazz Camp; Pacific Music Business Camp; Senior Band, Orchestra, Choir Camp; Pacific Music Theatre Camp; Senior Piano Camp.

Dates: 7-day programs June-July

University of Southern California

Focus: Guitar Seminar: Jazz, Rock and Beyond. Includes classical repertoire, sight-reading, theory, improvisation, technique. Studio Jazz and Popular Music faculty.

Dates: June 17-July 14


Colorado Conservatory for the Jazz Arts

Jazz in the Sangres Camp

Focus: Small group/improv and big band focus, plus master classes, jam sessions, workshops, performances, activities for high school musicians. Horns, drums, piano, guitar, bass, vibes.

Dates: July 17-21

Colorado State University Summer Workshops and Camps

Focus: Organ week, June 3-8; Pre-College Percussion Camp, June 7-8; Jr. LIFT Clarinet Academy, June 18-22; Drum Major and Leadership Academy, TBA; International Keyboard Odyssiad & Festival, July 31-August 4

CU Denver: LYNX Camp Audio Production/ Ableton Live Program

Focus: Students will work in our recording studios to learn audio production and Ableton Live.

Dates: June 11-15

CU Denver: LYNX Camp Music Industry Program

Focus: Music Industry – singer/songwriter, recording arts, music business, performance/ensembles. Electives, ensembles, private lessons, guest artists, field trips, concerts.

Dates: June 17-29

Lamont School of Music Summer Academy

Focus: Classical; all instruments including guitar, voice, composition. Private lessons, chamber music, orchestra, wind ensemble, choir, music theatre, music theory, recitals, master classes.

Dates: June 17–July 1

Metropolitan State University of Denver Summer Flute Institute

Focus: Flute study – classes, individual and group coaching.

Dates: June 11-15

Rocky Ridge Music Center

Focus: Junior Artist & Young Artist Seminars, Junior Music Program, Jazz Program: piano, strings, wind, voice, chamber music, orchestra.

Dates: June 5-August 5

University of Colorado Boulder College of Music Summer Academy

Focus: High School Summer Music Academy (band, strings, piano). Summer Jazz Academy. Summer Choir Academy.

Dates: Various


The Hartt School Community Division

Focus: Meet the Masters instrumental jazz; Summer Musical Theatre Intensive; Young Composers Project; Music Industry Program.

Dates: Vary by program, end of June through early August.


Florida State University College of Music

Focus: Band Camp, Choral Ensemble Camp, Double Bass Workshop, Guitar Workshop, Honors Chamber Winds Camp, Jazz Ensemble Camp, Marching Band Leadership Camp, Piano Camp, Piano Institute, String Orchestra Camp.

Dates: Vary by program, June-July

Frost Young Musicians’ Camp

Focus: Classical music, jazz, rock, musical theater and contemporary voice, composition, songwriting.

Dates: July 2-27

Frost Summer Institute of Contemporary Vocal Performance

Focus: Contemporary vocal performance.

Dates: July 2-13

Frost Summer Institute of Contemporary Songwriting

Focus: Contemporary songwriting and performance.

Dates: July 16-27

Sherrill Milnes VOICE Programs

Focus: Voice, administration, conducting, collaborative piano.

Dates: March 18-25; May 27-June 3; August 1-26


Bocal Majority Bassoon and Oboe Camp

Focus: bassoon, oboe, clarinet.

Dates: various dates


21CM Institute for Music Entrepreneurship

Focus: Faculty interested in learning how to teach music entrepreneurship.

Dates: July 8 – July 13

Indiana University Jacobs School of Music

Focus: Summer Music Academies and Workshops for Piano, Strings, Saxophone, Brass, Percussion, Organ, and College Audition Preparation.

Dates: Vary by program, from mid-June through end of July


Intermuse International Music Institute & Festival USA

Focus: Strings (violin, viola, cello) and piano. Solo & chamber music.

Dates: July 6-15


Berklee College of Music – Summer Programs

Focus: Music Performance (Bass; Brass; Guitar; Percussion; Piano; Strings; Voice; Woodwinds); Music Production and Technology; Music Business and Entrepreneurship; Songwriting and Music Composition.

Dates: Vary by program, May-August

Boston Conservatory at Berklee

Focus: Musical Theatre Dance Intensive; Vocal Choral Intensive; High School Composition Intensive; Opera (see International listing).

Dates: Vary by program, June-July

Longy School of Music of Bard College

Focus: Historical performance, Dalcroze Summer Institute, chamber music, composition, El Sistema, music practitioner certification, new music.

Dates: Vary by program, June-August

Walnut Hill Summer Theatre Program

Focus: 5-week boarding program, ages 13-17, daily classes in acting, musical theater, dance and opportunities to perform.

Dates: June 18-July 21


Interlochen Summer Arts Camp

Focus: Multi-week programs in orchestra and wind symphony; advanced string quartet; harp; composition; organ; piano; voice; jazz; rock; singer-songwriter; musical theatre. 1-week institutes in strings; woodwinds; brass; percussion; piano; musical theatre.

Dates: Vary by program, June-August

University of Michigan MPulse

Focus: Performing arts institutes in bassoon, clarinet,  flute, harp, horn, jazz, oboe, percussion, trumpet, musical theatre, vocal arts, and Center Stage Strings. Also dance, theatre and drama.

Dates: Vary by program, June-August

Western Michigan University Seminar: High School Summer Music Camp

Focus: Solo and collaborative performance study with a focus on chamber music. Experience what majoring in music would be like. For brass, woodwind, percussion, string, vocal/choral, keyboard and composition.

Dates: July 8-21


MSUM Kodály Summer Music Institute

Focus: Graduate-level Kodály music education training for teachers.

Dates: July 9-20

New Jersey

Mason Gross School of the Arts at Rutgers University

Focus: Music Theory & Ear Training; Summer Jazz Institute; Symphonic Wind Band and Chamber Music Camp; Summer Acting Conservatory – Musical Theatre Track.

Dates: Vary by program, June-Aug.

New York

Fredonia Summer Music Festival

Focus: Middle school band camp; high school band camp; honors and solo vocal camp; string camp.

Dates: Band camps, vocal camp – June 24-30; String Camp – July 22-28

French Woods Festival of the Performing Arts

Focus: Musical Theatre; Vocals; Orchestra; Jazz; Rock and Roll. Full camp setting includes water + other sports; dance; art; theatre; circus; magic.

Dates: June 3 –Sept. 3; 2 1/2 week sessions.

Ithaca College Summer Music Academy

Focus: Orchestra; vocal; wind ensemble (band); jazz. For intermediate and advanced music students.

Dates: July 8-21

Long Lake Camp for the Arts

Focus: Vocals, guitar, piano, jazz.

Dates: Three 3-week sessions

Luzerne Music Center

Focus: orchestra, piano, chamber music, music theory, conducting classes, composition, voice.

Dates: Junior Session/June 17-July 14;  Senior Session/July 17-August 12

Mannes Prep Summer Chamber Music Intensive

Focus: Chamber intensive, all instruments. Low student/faculty ratio.

Dates: August 5-11

New York Jazz Workshop Summer Program

Focus: Jazz improvisation, all instruments, Brazilian and international music, jazz vocals.

Dates: Various from June 3 to August 30

[email protected]

Focus: On-campus, residential programs: Classical (Music Horizons); Jazz (Summer Jazz Studies); Cello Institute; Saxophone Institute; Trombone Institute; Trumpet Institute. All include lessons, theory, master classes, more.

Dates: Vary by program, July-August

Syracuse University Summer College

Focus: Acting & Musical Theatre.

Dates: July

North Carolina

Cannon Music Camp

Focus: Band; Orchestra; Jazz; Choral; Theory.

Dates: June 23-July 14

East Carolina University School of Music Summer Camps & Workshops

Focus: Band Camp, Chamber Music Institute, Choir Camp, Guitar Festival, Piano Festival.

Dates: Vary, June-July


Baldwin Wallace Summer Music Programs

Focus: All vocal and instrumental.

Dates: July

University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music (CCM)

Focus: High School Arts Immersion; FortiCCMo Piano Workshop; Jazz Academy; Musical Theatre Workshop; Voice Workshop.

Dates: June 17-30


Oklahoma City University Summer Music Programs

Focus: Musical Theater (2, 3 or 5 week sessions); Vocal Arts Institute; Percussion; Double Reed Intensive.

Dates: Vary by program, June-July


Carnegie Mellon University Summer Pre-College Music

Focus: Lessons, coaching, audition prep. Immersion in a conservatory environment similar to freshman year. Instrumental, vocal, composition. See link for instruments.

Dates: June 30-Aug. 11

Lebanon Valley College

Focus: Concert band, string ensemble, choir, jazz, rock & blues, piano, musical theatre, chamber ensembles, songwriting, audio production.

Dates: July 8-13

Penn State – The Honors Music Institute

Focus: Choir, band, jazz combo.

Dates: July 15-21

Philadelphia International Music Camp & Festival

Focus: Orchestra, chamber music, solo performance piano, vocal.

Dates: June 26-June 29 + July 14-July 27

South Carolina

Southeast Piano Festival

Focus: Rigorous piano program; lessons, master classes, piano competition.

Dates: June 17-24


Belmont University School of Music

Focus: String Crossings Camp (multiple styles including Classical, Swing, Celtic, Rock, Jazz, Bluegrass); Summer Winds Band Camp (woodwinds, brass, percussion in Classical & Jazz); Vocal Arts (solo and choral with ensemble options); Piano Camp (Classical or Jazz plus music theory, sight-reading, improvisation).

Dates: Vary by program, all in June.

Memphis Music Camp

Focus: Choir, band and orchestra.

Dates: Choir: June 11-16; Band & Orchestra: June 18-23


Bocal Majority Bassoon and Oboe Camp

Focus: bassoon, oboe, clarinet.

Dates: various dates

Round Top Festival Institute

Focus: Strings, woodwinds, brass, piano, percussion.

Dates: June 3–July 15

TCU Summer Music Institute

Focus: Band Camp; Choir Camp; Percussion Camp. Workshops in: flute; saxophone; harp; clarinet; trombone; strings.

Dates: Vary by program, all in June.

University of Houston Moores School of Music

Focus: Cougar Choir Camp; Band Camp; Texas Music Festival Instructional Institutes (voice, flute, piano, jazz). Dates: Vary by program, July-Aug.


Bocal Majority Bassoon and Oboe Camp

Focus: bassoon, oboe, clarinet.

Dates: various dates


German Vocal Arts Institute in Seattle

Focus: Mozart’s Magic Flute in German with dialogues and German Art Song.

Dates:  July 28-August 12

University of Puget Sound Brass Camp

Focus: Small groups and large ensembles, master classes, final performance.

Dates:  June 25-29

Marrowstone Music Festival

Focus: orchestra, chamber music, piano, master classes, camp

Dates:  July 22-August 5


Lawrence University

Focus: Musical Theatre; Piano Camp; Summer Chamber Music; Band Camp.

Dates: Vary by program, June-July

Shell Lake Arts Center

Focus: Music, theatre, visual arts.

Dates: June 10-August 10

  • summer music camps
  • summer music camps


How to Choose the Right Summer Music Program

Start by answering the following 6 questions:

1. What do you want to gain from a summer music program?

For example:

  • Private lessons with a specific teacher
  • Learning to practice more efficiently and effectively
  • Opportunities to play in ensembles, orchestras, bands
  • Opportunities to perform in musical theatre
  • Opportunities to learn more about composing
  • Opportunities to jam with other students, faculty
  • Opportunities to learn about music production
  • Music theory preparation
  • Sight-reading proficiency
  • Aural skills
  • Audition preparation and support
  • Help in reducing performance anxiety
  • Master classes

2. What besides music would you like to explore or participate in?

3. What kind of environment do you want to be in?

  • A well-rounded camp experience vs. a focused music experience?
  • In what area of the country – or world?
  • Do you want a cultural experience in conjunction with a summer music program? Or do you need or want to be a commuter?
  • Do you want to learn more about a specific college or conservatory while studying music?

4. What’s your current proficiency level? Are you able and willing to audition to be accepted?

5. Length of program

  • How long of a program are you able and willing to commit to? And during what part of the summer?

6. Finances

  • Any financial restrictions?
  • Will you find the time to apply for scholarships and other financial aid if needed? (Note that financial support often requires applying early.)


summer music 18 lead singer


Types of Summer Music Programs and Their Benefits

Some of these overlap but this should help steer you toward a summer music experience that will meet your needs.

1. Performing arts camps

  • Get lessons, practice, and performance opportunities in a well-rounded summer experience.
  • Meet other musicians who also seek a broader summer experience.
  • Experience traditional camp activities: water and land sports, hiking, social events, overnight excursions, crafts, etc.

2. Programs on college campuses

  • Experience the campus, faculty, and dorms at a school where you might apply.
  • Take lessons from faculty you may end up studying with.
  • Feel out the location – how do you like the area? Would it work to be there for four years?
  • Gain college-planning and audition skills.

3. Instrument and genre-focused programs

  • Immerse yourself in your area of musical focus and passion.
  • Meet lifelong friends and mentors in your field.

4. Programs associated with music festivals

  • Meet faculty who perform all over the world as well as a select group of students with shared interests.
  • If housed on a college campus, see #2 above.

5. International summer music programs

  • Immerse yourself in another culture to broaden your musical interests.
  • Experience how a different culture informs your compositions and arrangements.
  • Meet mentors and fellow students from around the world.



Summer Camp and Program Jobs

Contact these programs to learn more about summer jobs. New opportunities will be added throughout the winter and into the spring.

Long Lake Camp for the Arts (NY)

Idyllwild Arts Summer Program (CA)

French Woods Festival of the Performing Arts (NY)

Round Top Music Festival (TX)

The Ingenium Academy International Music Summer School (UK)

Philadelphia International Music Camp & Festival (PA) (email to [email protected])

Sherrill Milnes VOICE Programs (FL)

SJW Jazz Institute (CA)  (email to [email protected])

New York Jazz Workshop Summer Program (NY) (limited to 1/2 season)

FOOSA Summer Orchestra Academy (CA)(fellowship students have assigned duties)

Alion Baltic International Music Festival(workstudy)  (Europe)

Luzerne Music Center (NY)(camp counselors/teaching assistants)

Lebanon Valley College (PA)

Shell lake Arts Center (WI)




summer camps and programs performing arts abroadPhoto Courtesy of Performing Arts Abroad

summer music 18 female singer

Photo Credits: top, Michael Bevers for Lamont Summer Academy; 2nd from top, courtesy of Performing Arts Abroad.

All additional photos by Robert King Photography (unless otherwise noted) for LYNX National Arts & Media Camps – University of Colorado Denver

Contact us to list your 2018 summer camp or music program

Use this  Contact Form .

2018 Summer Music Camps & Programs


New York Jazz Workshop summer 18

Marrowstone summer music

Eastman summer music 17

Fredonia summer music 18

Stanford Jazz summer music

Ingenium summer music 18

Frost Young Musicians summer camp 18

Longy School of Music Bard College

Alion Baltic summer music 18

Voice Experience summer

CU Denver LYNX summer music camp

VSO Institute summer music 18

Lamont summer music 18

Jazz Camp West summer music 18

USC Summer music 2018

Frost Young Musicians summer vocal 18

University of Memphis summer music 18

French Woods summer music 18

FOOSA summer music 18

Film scoring summer 18

Shell Lake Arts Center

Stanford Arts summer music 18


Rocky Ridge summer music camp

21CM Institute Depauw University

Colorado State University summer music

Cannon Music Camp Hayes School of Music summer 18

Penn State music summer 18

Frost Young Musicians summer songwriting 18

Berklee College of Music summer programs

Bocal Majority summer music

Idyllwild Arts summer music

Round Top summer music 18

Baldwin Wallace summer music 2018

Luzerne Music Center



  1. Brooke

    This is perfect for me because I LOVE music with a passion but, I need to work on writing my own songs. I love all these opportunities.


  2. Samuel

    So, can you take a summer music program outside of your state if desired? Or does that vary from school to school?


    • MajoringInMusic

      Absolutely! It really all depends on you – what kind of program you’re looking for, where you want to be geographically, whether you can afford out-of-state programs.


  3. Dana

    I play Tuba and I really want to be in a summer program where I’ll be able to play a lot better and learn more about music. Currently a sophomore in college majoring in music ed and I feel like I should learn new things outside of home so I can come back with a motivated mind set.


  4. Kobe

    I am 19 and am a freshman. I’ve played guitar for 8 years, drums for 4, but have only studied with a teacher for the last three months. How much skill is required to enter most summer music programs for drums? I’ve played rock up until I switched to jazz for the last couple months. Since I’ve started studying with a teacher I’ve been practicing on average 2 – 2.5 hours everyday. Any recommended programs?


    • MajoringInMusic

      Definitely worth checking with the programs you’re interested in. Explore the many options on our list of summer programs, both close to home and in other states. Make a list of those that seem to be a good fit and compare. You eventually may have to call individual programs to fully understand what they can do for you. Many offer different levels of instruction to accommodate students of varying proficiency, with the goal of helping them rise to the next level. Your commitment to practicing will help you establish a solid foundation.


  5. Cindy

    My 15 year old sings and writes country music, also plays guitar. Is there a camp that suits aspiring country artists?


    • MajoringInMusic

      We don’t know of any country music-specific programs but we suggest you check out songwriting and summer guitar programs – the skills learned will likely serve your student even if the program doesn’t focus specifically on country music.


  6. Travis

    Hello, my son will be 17 summer of 2015. He has had private lessons for about 8 years on drum set and has been playing in the schools jazz band for the last 5 years. He is looking at Berklees 5 week summer program. What are your opinions on Berklees program. He has done CWU jazz camp the last 2 summers and is really wanting an intense program going into his senior year as he will start auditioning for college. He is going to major in music performance or jazz.




    • MajoringInMusic

      Rather than rank or evaluate programs, provides a wealth of information to empower students and parents to make smart choices and decisions based on their personal criteria. This is far more likely to result in a good fit. Look at the criteria listed on this section to get started. Our 2015 page, which will post beginning December 15, will include more detailed information. Also take a look at some of the articles under “Choosing Music Schools” – some of the same criteria apply for summer programs.


    • Bruce

      My son has done the Berklee 5 week last summer as a Drum Performance major. It was overall a positive experience (he was an incoming 9th grader). He was put into two ensembles, one was not so challenging and less than stimulating, the other was with more experienced players and he found that one challenging and lots of fun. My biggest criticism was that each ensemble rehersed only twice per week. The rest of the time he was in elective classes, all important stuff (jazz history, music theory, musicianship training), but what he really wanted to do was rack up hours of ensemble experience with players that were at or above his level. He got to do this twice per week, 9 times total during the 5 weeks. That said, the experience of living in a dorm, having to advocate for himself, practice, play, etc, was amazing.


  7. Sarah

    I’m 19 and play piano organ and piano, but both at beginner level, in comparison to the best pianists/organists. I am DYING to study both INTENSELY over the summer. I also sing a lot and have very good choral technique but don’t have vibrato – I would also love to study voice intensely over the summer.

    Are there any programs that would take beginners pianists/vocalists?


    • MajoringInMusic

      Every program is different – some offer beginner lessons, while others are geared toward those much higher levels of expertise. We’ll be posting the 2015 programs beginning late December, with new programs added through the spring, so check back often. Also look at programs offered by community music schools in your area – most offer programs for children and adults at all levels.


  8. Wendy

    My daughter plays French horn and trumpet. We are interested in a summer music camp/ program in the southern California area.


    • MajoringInMusic

      This page of Summer Camps  Programs is updated starting every December, but you can get a head start by visiting any of the links/programs on the right side of this page. New programs will be added through early spring 2015! For now, look under the California listings in the right column.


  9. Mary

    Hi! I’m interested in doing summer program in piano but I don’t actually have any idea about the procedure and which courses to choose since I’ve just recently starting to play. My intentions are doing a course in a good university/college in Manhattan or maybe Chicago or Boston. Can you pls suggest any also keeping in mind that I’m 15. Thanks!


    • MajoringInMusic

      You’ll have lots of options. Summer programs offered on college campuses are a great way to get a taste of what a college environment is like and to familiarize yourself with a particular college setting. Pick a few programs in the list provided on this page from colleges that interest you. Get in touch with them a ask questions to start the ball rolling. And look for our 2015 page to be posted sometime in December. We suggest you consider a program that will also give you theory training, and opportunities to perform at whatever level you’re at.


  10. Mary

    My daughter plays piano, drums and sings. She is just starting guitar. We are looking for an opportunity for next summer with a rock/pop emphasis. Camps are okay, but college based would be better. Suggestions. International options would be great too. She will be 15 next summer.


    • MajoringInMusic

      We assume you’ve already looked at the programs offered for this past summer – many of these will be offered again next summer. We’ll post next summer’s Music Camps  Programs page in late December. Programs will be added throughout winter and early spring, so be sure to visit often.


  11. Steve

    My daughter is interested in taking a term or year “away” from her high school. Do you know of schools offering music-voice-theater programs serving HS juniors? Thank you.


    • MajoringInMusic


      Our first thought is to look with your daughter at the boarding arts high schools that offer programs in which she’s looking to immerse herself. They’re known for doing an excellent job of preparing students for their next steps. And she wouldn’t have to lose a year of high school since she’d be taking her academic classes there as well. Two of those schools are participating on so you can easily view what they offer: Interlochen Arts Academy and Walnut Hill School for the Arts . Please let them know we referred you if you do follow up. They’ll be happy to talk with you. Other options are non-residential after school programs, non-residential arts high schools, and, of course, summer programs.


  12. Theresa

    Love the list of possibilities! However I noticed Georgia is missing from the state listings, so I thought I would share that the University of Georgia provided a fabulous band camp experience for my daughter, an experiemced trumpet player this past summer. She will be returning next year.


    • MajoringInMusic

      Thanks for your input, Theresa! Glad to hear your daughter had such a positive experience. We’ll talk with UGA about getting their program up on our summer page for 2015.


  13. Lisa Buck

    My son is a high school junior and interested in studying music composition in college. He would like to attend a summer program specifically for music composition that will give him the opportunity to start composing and recording his own pieces.

    Do you have recommendations on any programs?


    • MajoringInMusic

      Programs we work with that offer composing in the summer include: Lamont School of Music Summer Academy, Long Lake Camp, Rocky Ridge Music Center, Interlochen, The Walden School Young Musicians Program, Ithaca College Summer Music Academy, U of North Carolina School of the Arts Summer Music Programs, Cornish College of the Arts. If your son is interested in popular music and songwriting, have him check Leeds College of Music, Interlochen, U of Colorado Denver Summer Music Industry Program.


  14. Tina

    My son would like to go to a residential music camp this summer. Where can I find comments or reviews by participants so that we can help him select tht one that best fits him and guide him as to what to expect?


    • MajoringInMusic

      We suggest you start by looking at the various camps and programs on this page to see what interests your son. Some of their websites do have testimonials from former campers and families. You and your son can also contact any of the programs that interest him, and ask them any and all questions that aren’t already answered on their websites. Also get some names and contact information for recent attendees. Then contact the parents and see if their kids would be willing to have a conversation with your son.

      Remember that no two people will have the exact same reaction to a program, but you can glean good information by asking the kinds of questions that will help you both in the decision-making process.


  15. lorraine

    I have a 16 year-old Saxophonist. Do you have any classes in Phoenix. She’s in marching band for 3 yrs, jazz for 2 and elementary band for 4 yrs. She reads music and would like to learn more about jazz. Thank you


    • MajoringInMusic

      Some suggestions as to where to look for summer jazz programs in your area:

      1. Jazz in Arizona/The Nash ( – look for their summer jazz programs by mid-April.

      2. Community colleges in the area (Paradise Valley, Maricopa, Scottsdale).

      3. Community music schools in Phoenix, such as Phoenix Center for the Arts.

      Also check the state-by-state list of programs on this page to also learn about excellent jazz programs outside your area.


  16. Pam

    My 16 year old son would like a camp where he will get vocal and songwriting instruction. He is also interested in recording. Mostly this summer he wants to go someplace where he can grow his skills. He made the ACDA honor’s choir at the State level this year and he writes music/songs on a regular basis but he wants to be better at both. He taught himself guitar and he took piano lessons for years and does mostly improv and piano to supplement his singing now. We live in California but aren’t opposed to traveling. Any ideas?


    • MajoringInMusic

      Programs we’re working with this year that offer what your son is looking for include: Idyllwild Arts (CA), Interlochen (MI), Stanford Jazz Workshop Jazz Institute (Songwriting, CA), University of the Pacific (Pacific Music Business Camp. CA), University of Colorado Summer Music Industry Program (Songwriting, CO), Cornish College of the Arts (WA).

      Check them out on this Summer Music Camps  Programs page!


    • CJ Fam

      Also look into the NYU beginning and advanced summer songwriting intensives. The classes are great.


  17. Mellisa

    My son wants to go to a music program in Italy this summer but doesn’t know any one else who wants to go with him. Can you help me think this out? Would he be better off waiting until he can maybe go with a group of students from his school?


    • MajoringInMusic

      Summer music programs in other countries offer wonderful opportunities for students who are ready for them. There are some advantages to not going with a school group and your son will certainly meet people wherever he goes. Find out everything you can about supervision, lodging, language support, private instruction, cultural opportunities, etc. Ask for contact information for a few families whose children have attended the programs your son is interested in so you can get some more objective feedback about those programs.


  18. Kreston

    I am looking for a summer music program for my middle schooler who plays saxophone. He will be going into the 8th grade next year. I would like to find a place that is in the Southeast that also offers Graduate for musicians. I have my bachelor’s for the University of Memphis. I would like to get started on my Grad degree on saxophone. May not be possible to pull this off, but I thought I would ask. Memphis does not offer a summer program.


    • MajoringInMusic

      Stay tuned for the 2014 Summer Music Camps  Programs information! Posting of programs will start mid-December and will be accessed from the homepage.

      And…how far are you willing/able to travel?

      Note that if you’re interested in blues, check out Fernando Jones’ Blues Camp for your son. He’ll bring a blues camp your way if you can facilitate the process.


  19. Andy

    I know summer is almost over but maybe for next year… Summer camps other than the ones listed for a High School Student in Los Angeles? Thank you!


    • MajoringInMusic

      Thanks, Andy, for your comment. If you’ll give us an idea of what type of music and what kind of programs would interest you, we’ll do our best to scout them out for next season.


  20. Nick

    Hi! I was wondering what information you had on summer programs in Pennsylvania or relatively close to it. Thanks!


    • MajoringInMusic


      In the state-by-state listing over on the right of this page, you’ll see excellent music programs with different focuses, in Pennsylvania (at Temple and Penn State) and surrounding states (Ohio, New York). You’ll notice that several programs are offered through the music schools and departments at universities.


  21. Ingrid

    I am interested in summer programs in music for high school students in New York City. Any information you have would be greatly appreciated. Thank you in advance for your time.


    • MajoringInMusic


      We’re honored to be working with excellent programs in New York. You don’t state what area of music you’re looking for, but check these out:

      • The New York Jazz Academy (Manhattan) is a place for jazz – all instruments, all level. Queens College’s Aaron Copland School of Music has a great Summer Vocal Institute.

      Other NY programs outside the city but worth looking at:

      • Eastern U.S. Music Camp at Colgate University

      (wind  chamber ensembles, jazz, voice, orchestra, piano, guitar (jazz, rock, classical)

      • Fredonia Summer Music Festival (SUNY Fredonia – Fredonia, NY)

      (winds, brass  percussion high school students

      • French Woods Festival of the Performing Arts (Catskills)

      jazz (all instruments, voice), Classical (all instruments, voice)

      • Ithaca College Summer Music Academy (Ithaca, NY)

      (wind ensemble, orchestra, voice, jazz, classical guitar)

      • Long Lake Camp for the Arts (Adirondacks)

      (all instruments, all styles + rock)

      • Skidmore Jazz Institute (Saratoga Springs)

      (jazz performance, recording)

      • Syracuse Summer Programs (Syracuse, NY)

      (recording studio tech., musical theatre, girls leadership academy)


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Columbus AFB Living



Welcome to Columbus Air Force Base, home of Team BLAZE and the 14th Flying Training Wing!   


Upon your arrival, get ready to experience southern charm and hospitality, as Columbus, Mississippi is known as “The Friendly City”. Columbus Air Force Base is located in Northeast Mississippi nearby the Tombigbee River. From the bright and sunny summers to moderate winters, everyone can enjoy a wide range of 

BLAZELOGOactivities year-round. This website is newly designed to help you make the most out of your time here. At the top of the page you’ll see drop down menus that can give you all of the information you may need on upcoming events, organizations, as well as the local & surrounding area. 


Want to let us know how we’re doing? Please use the  Interactive Customer Evaluation (ICE) program to leave us feedback. Your participation in our online comment program will enter you in a monthly drawing for a chance to win a $25 gift card useable at any FSS facility on base.  Customer service is our number one priority, and we want to ensure we are doing the very best that we can to serve you!

Check out this quick  60 Second Video of A1C Jake Camacho (14 OSS) discussing QoL issues in the Air Force and here at Columbus.  It’s the little things that make a big difference!

To catch what’s going on at a Glance, check out our Calendar below.  Have a base-wide event you want to post to the calendar or constructive feedback in regards to this website itself, simply send an email to [email protected] .


Based on user feedback, we recently updated the calendar view default setting to “Agenda”.  If you enjoyed the monthly calendar view, simply hit the drop down menu on the right and select “Month” or choose a setting that you enjoy.

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August 2018
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Customer Appreciation Month
@ Various


Aug 1 – Aug 31 all-day

Customer Appreciation

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Armed Forces Men’s Rugby Championship
@ Glendale, CO


Aug 12 @ 7:30 am – Aug 27 @ 4:30 pm


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Fitness Center


Key Spouse Mentor Training


Aug 20 @ 9:30 am – 11:00 am

Key Spouse Mentor Training @ A&FRC

Initial Key Spouse Training.  Call 434-2790 for details.

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Storytime at the Library (Ages 3 – 6)
@ Library


Aug 21 @ 10:00 am

Storytime Apr2018

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Heart Link/Spouse Welcome @ Airman & Family Readiness Center


Aug 22 @ 8:30 am – 12:00 pm

This spouse orientation program is designed for spouses new to the military or new to Columbus AFB. This is a great opportunity to increase knowledge of the Air Force mission, customs, traditions, protocols and available programs and services in a fun, relaxed atmosphere. Make new friends while learning more about Air Force life. To register and more information please call (662) 434-2790.



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Local Employment Workshop


Aug 22 @ 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

Discussion of employment information and opportunities in the local area for spouses, dependents, veterans, and Government employees.  For additional information or to register call (662) 434-2790.


local employment workshop

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Alpha Warrior Celebrity Tour
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Aug 23 – Aug 24 all-day

Alpha Warrior

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Storytime at the Library (Birth – 2 Years Old)
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Aug 24 @ 10:00 am

Storytime Apr2018

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Laser Storm Bowling
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Aug 24 @ 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm

Laser Storm Bowling

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Bowling Center


Laser Storm Bowling
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Aug 25 @ 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm

Laser Storm Bowling

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August 2018
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