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  • Overview
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Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS)


Globally healthcare courses have modified and improved over the years. These changes are results of the feedback from medical practitioners, staff and students. Our Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program contains an innovative tailored curriculum, highly designed to meet the healthcare needs of Pakistan. It is recognized from Pakistan Medical and Dental Council and extensively accredited by many International medical certification bodies.The quality of our modules matches the best offered MBBS anywhere in the world.

The program was started in 1996. It is a pioneering degree program integrated with multi-disciplinary clinical trainings which not only allow you achieve solid scientific understanding about medicine but also provide you perfect opportunity to practice appropriate clinical skills and become leader in your field. The curriculum is taught by expert faculty. They redefine medicine and develop pathways for the research in healthcare. The sixteen batches have already graduated and providing their services in national and global health care industry and many more are yet to go.

Teaching Methodology

Right from the start of the course, the values of the program include student-centered approach, problem-centered approach, patient-centered approach and community-centered approach. However, scientific basis of medicine is strongly emphasized across the years and throughout the course. The registered students of the program go under instructional methods including problem solving in systematic procedures.

Students work in small groups based on actual medical problems they learn how to perform procedures before going in real-life situations. The students focus clinical reasoning and obtain early clinical exposure. They get chance to work on equipment & labs for hands on setting before dealing actual patients. This is the main reason they gain a decent confidence over clinical proficiency and excel in their career.  In addition to these facilities students and faculty have also full access to online information portals.

Research labs

IIMC provides a rich environment for cutting edge research in Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Specialties, Medical Education and Cross Disciplinary research with Bio-Medical Engineering, Information Technology, Rehabilitation and Pharmaceutics. The research Journal of IIMC provides yet another platform for exploring new horizons in basic and clinical subjects.

IIMC has state-of-the-art research labs and equipment for observation and practical research work at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Beside this more than 50,000 e-books and 2,500 journals in the field of medical education are available on our information portal.

Eligibility Criteria:

  • The candidate should have passed the intermediate science (FSc) examination (medical group) securing at least 60% marks in aggregate, unadjusted, from a Pakistani university or an equivalent examination of a board of secondary education in Pakistan.


  • Any other examination of a foreign university or examining body (A levels etc.) which in scope and standard is found equivalent to the intermediate science F.Sc (Pre Medical Group) examination (medical group) of a Pakistani university or board of secondary education. Such candidates will have to furnish, along with their application, an equivalence certificate from the inter-board chairman of committee (IBCC). However, equivalence certificates of such applicants will not be accepted who have not studied physics, chemistry, biology and English in 11th and 12th grade.


  • The candidate should have passed a higher examination of a Pakistani university with biological sciences (BSc) after FSc in medical group, securing 60% marks (in both degrees) in aggregate, unadjusted, from a Pakistani university or an equivalent examination.

Admission for expatriates / International Students:

  • Pakistani nationals living abroad who meet the eligibility criteria mentioned above are eligible to take the entry test. If they do not take the entry test, they can alternatively take the SAT II test with minimum score of 550.
  • If the medium of instruction in that country is other than English, they will also have to take TOEFL with a minimum score of 500 or IELTS with a minimum score of 5.5. They are eligible for both open merit seats and the reserved seats for expatriates. However entry test is mandatory for admission on open merit seat.
  • Note: For International students (Non Pakistanis) more documentation shall be required which is provided on our website

Available Seats:

The distribution of seats is as follows:

Open Merit                                                     78 seats

Foreign / Expatriate                                       15 seats

Pakistan Railway Employees                         05 seats

Al-Mizan Foundation                                      01 seats

IIMCT/RIU Employees’ Children                    01 seat                 

Total                                                              100 seats            

Selection Criteria:

Matric or Equivalent                                       10%

Intermediate or Equivalent                             40%

Provincial Govt. Entry Test                             50%

Class Timings:

Monday to Friday, (8:00 am to 3:00 pm)

College Location:

Islamic International Medical College. Al-Mizan IIMCT Complex, Old Supreme Court Building, 274 – Peshawar Road, Rawalpindi

Affiliated Hospitals:

  1. Pakistan Railway Hospital, Westridge, Rawalpindi
  2. Riphah International Hospital, Sihala, Zone V, Islamabad
  3. Hearts International Hospital, Near PC Hotel, The Mall, Rawalpindi
  4. Max Health Hospital, G-8 Markaz, Islamabad.

Course Facts

Study Level

Study ModeProgram DurationCredit HoursIntakeClass Timings1st Year Fee
Undergraduate (17 Years)Full Time5 Years Once a Year (OCT-NOV)

Monday to Friday
Morning 8:00 Am to 3:00 PM

Will be updated soon

Entry To MBBS


SeatsSelection CriteriaScholarshipsOffered atStart DateApplication

F.Sc (Pre-medical) with minimum unadjusted 60% marks.


  F.Sc/equivalent :40 %
  Entry Test:50%


Al-Mizan Campus Rawalpindi

Peshawar Medical College: Open

IIMC: Linked with UHS Dates*

Apply Online

Learning to Transform Apply Now

Program Structure

Integrated Modular System:

IIMC takes pride in selection by PM & DC for implementing integrated curriculum in MBBS program. Integrated system curriculum is divided into modules. Each module comprises of a specific body system. The curriculum content is spread over two spirals of 02 years each. The first spiral comprises of 13 modules in which 70% content is from basic sciences and 30% from clinical sciences. The second spiral again comprises of 13 modules but 70% content is of clinical sciences and 30% is of basic sciences. The last year (final year) comprises structured clinical clerkships in various clinical departments.

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Gowns Ceremony at Riphah

Gold Medal Award for VC

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All Rights Reserved, 2018 Riphah International UniversityDesigned and Developed by: Evamp & Saanga

windows movie maker multiple videos one screen


Windows Movie Maker Manual

Windows Movie Maker
Getting started
Key concepts
Understanding collections, projects, and movies
Understanding source files
Understanding capture devices
About video capture devices
About audio capture devices
Connecting capture devices
About the capture buffer
About saving a movie
About Windows Media
Understanding video settings
Understanding connection speeds
Preparing to create your video
Creating and improving video
Compensating for flaws in video
Creating and improving audio
System requirements
Supported file types
Keyboard shortcuts
Understanding the Windows Movie Maker interface
About the menu bar and toolbar
About the panes
About the Movie Tasks pane
About the Collections pane
About the Contents pane
About the monitor
About the storyboard and timeline
About the storyboard
About the timeline
Using Windows Movie Maker
Capturing video
To capture the entire video from a tape in a DV camera
To capture parts of video from a tape in a DV camera
To capture video from tape in an analog camera or VCR
To capture live video
Choosing a video and audio capture device
To change the capturing device
Understanding the Configure Video Capture Device dialog box
To change camera settings
To change video settings
To change the settings for a TV tuner
Choosing a saving destination
Choosing a video setting
Choosing how to capture from a DV device
Capturing automatically from a DV device
Capturing video and audio
Using the DV controls
Troubleshooting capturing video
Previewed and captured video is distorted
Captured video file exceeds the FAT32 4-gigabyte file size limit
DV device is not responding
Taking pictures
To take a picture from video in the monitor
Importing existing digital media files
To import existing digital media files
To import a Windows Movie Maker collections file
Importing video files and clip detection
Saving a project
To save a project
To save a project with a new name
Previewing projects and clips
To preview a project
To preview a clip
To pause or stop previewing a project
To play video in full-screen mode
To change the preview monitor size
To jump to a frame
To jump to a clip in a project
Displaying clip properties
To display clip properties
Displaying project properties
To edit project properties
To display project properties in Windows Explorer
Editing projects
To switch the view of a project
To add a clip to a project
To remove a clip from a project
To clear the storyboard/timeline
To create a new project
To open a project
Zooming in and out
To zoom in or out on the timeline
To fit the timeline on the screen
To increase or decrease the size of the storyboard
Moving and copying clips
To copy a clip on the storyboard/timeline
To move a clip on the storyboard/timeline
To nudge a clip on the timeline
Undoing actions
To undo the last action
To redo the last undone action
To undo or redo multiple actions at one time
Using AutoMovie
To create an AutoMovie
Selecting an AutoMovie editing style
Entering title text
Selecting background music
Editing clips
Splitting and combining clips
To split a video or audio clip
To combine a split audio or video clip
Trimming clips
To trim a clip
To clear trim points
Creating clips
To create clips for an existing video clip
Using video transitions, video effects, and titles
Working with video transitions
To add a video transition
To change the video transition duration
To remove a video transition
Using video effects
To add a video effect
To remove a video effect
Changing video effects
To add or remove video effects
Adding titles and credits
To add a title or credit
To edit an existing title
To change the title duration
To remove a title
Choosing the title location
Entering title text
Choosing the title animation
Selecting the title font and colors
Working with audio
Narrating the timeline
To narrate the timeline
Adjusting the audio levels
To adjust audio levels
Adding audio effects
To add an audio effect
To remove an audio effect
To mute audio
Adjusting audio clip volume
To adjust the volume of an audio clip
Organizing collections and clips
To change the clip view
To arrange clips in the Contents pane
To create a collection
To delete a collection
To rename a collection
To delete a clip from a collection
To copy a clip in a collection
Working with the collections file
To back up the collections file
To restore the collections file
Saving and sending movies
Saving a movie to My computer
To save a movie on your computer
To save a movie to a Pocket PC device
To open and watch a movie in the My Videos folder
Saving your movie for local playback
Completing the Save Movie Wizard when saving to My computer
Troubleshooting saving a movie to My computer
Movie file exceeds the FAT32 4-gigabyte size limit
Not enough disk available free disk space
Movie file saving destination does not exist
Source files for movie not found
Saving a movie to a recordable CD
To save a movie to a CD-R or CD-RW
Saving a movie for playback on a recordable CD
Completing the Save Movie Wizard when saving a movie to a recordable CD
Troubleshooting saving a movie to a recordable CD
Recordable CD drive not detected
Recordable CD drive not enabled for recording CDs
Permission denied for recording CDs
No recordable CD
CD is not recordable or rewriteable
Sending a movie in e-mail
To send a movie as an attachment in an e-mail message
Saving a movie for sending in an e-mail message
Completing the Save Movie Wizard when sending a movie in an e-mail message
Troubleshooting sending a movie by e-mail
File size is too large to send in e-mail
E-mail program does not support automatic attachments
Determining and changing your default e-mail program
Sending a movie to the Web
To send a movie to a video hosting provider on the Web
Choosing a movie setting for the Web
Saving a movie for sending to the Web
Getting video hosting provider information from the Internet
Choosing and signing in to a video hosting provider
Signing in progress
Sending a movie to the Web progress
Completing the Save Movie Wizard when sending a movie to the Web
Troubleshooting sending a movie to the Web
Movie not accepted by video hosting provider
Cannot download latest video hosting provider from the Web
No video hosting providers available in your country or region
Recording a movie to a DV camera
To record a movie back to tape
To copy a movie on DV tape to an analog tape
Choosing a DV device
Cuing your tape
Recording to tape
Completing the Save Movie Wizard when recording to tape
Troubleshooting recording a movie to DV tape
No DV device found
DV camera does not support DV In
Switch DV camera to VCR mode
No tape in DV camera
DV tape is write-protected
First seconds of movie recorded to tape are missing
Entire movie may not fit on tape if recording in SP mode
Temporary movie file exceeds the FAT32 4-gigabyte size limit
Naming the saved movie file
Choosing a movie setting
Configuring options
Setting general options
To specify the default author
To specify the temporary storage location
To automatically open the last project when Windows Movie Maker starts
To change the save interval time for automatic file recovery
To automatically download uninstalled codecs
To reset warning dialog boxes
To clear all passwords and user names
To restore default general settings
Setting advanced options
To specify default durations
To set the video format
To set the aspect ratio
To set the maximum movie file size for sending movies by e-mail
To restore default advanced settings
Accessibility for people with disabilities
Accessibility features in Windows Movie Maker
Accessibility features in Windows Movie Maker Help
Keyboard shortcuts for using the Help window
To change the appearance of a Help topic
To change the color of the background or text in Help
To change the font in Help
Accessible products and services from Microsoft
Accessibility in Microsoft Windows
Adjusting Microsoft products for people with accessibility needs
Free step-by-step tutorials
Microsoft documentation in alternative formats
Assistive technology for Windows
Customer service for people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing
Getting more accessibility information
Windows Movie Maker banner art

Splitting and combining clips

You can split or combine audio, video, and pictures into smaller, more manageable clips. When you split a video or audio clip, the large clip is divided into two smaller clips. For example, if you have a video clip, and you want to insert a video transition in the middle of it, you can split the video clip at the point where you want to insert the video transition and then add the desired transition.

The following table indicates where you can split the different types of digital media files in Windows Movie Maker.

Digital media clipContents paneStoryboard Timeline
AudioX X
Pictures XX

Conversely, you might have a file that was divided into smaller clips that you want to combine. You can combine contiguous clips. Contiguous clips means that the start time of the second clip immediately follows the end time of the first clip. For example, if you have a video or audio file that was divided into clips when it was imported into Windows Movie Maker, and the clips are named Clip 1, Clip 2, and Clip 3, in that order, you could combine Clip 1 and Clip 2, or Clip 2 and Clip 3. However, you cannot combine Clip 1 and Clip 3 because they are not contiguous. You can combine contiguous video clips in the Contents pane before adding the clip or clips to the storyboard/timeline.

Related topics

  • To split a video or audio clip
  • To combine a split audio or video clip
  • Editing clips

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  1. Home
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  4. How to Put Multiple Videos on One Screen Using Windows Movie Maker

How to Put Multiple Videos on One Screen Using Windows Movie Maker

March 31, 2015
By: Diana Braun
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Windows Movie Maker is movie making and editing software that’s included for free with Microsoft Windows XP and Vista. You can add audio, effects and transitions to videos. Videos often consist of multiple clips taken at different events at different times. You have the option to combine multiple videos into one and view them on the screen at once using Windows Movie Maker.

Video of the Day


Click the Windows orb, "All Programs" and then click "Windows Movie Maker."


Click "Videos" under "Import" in the "Tasks" pane.


Click the video you wish to add to your screen and click the "Import" button. Do this for each video you wish to add. The videos are added to the "Imported Media" area.


Click and drag each video from the "Imported Media" window to the timeline located at the bottom of the screen.


Click the video clips and click the play button in the preview pane on the right to view them on the screen.

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michigan history today

History of Michigan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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For the magazine, see Michigan History (magazine) .

The Great Seal of the State of Michigan

History of Michigan
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  • Pre-statehood
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  • Topics: Cities – Politics
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan portal
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The history of human activity in Michigan , a U.S. state in the Great Lakes , began with settlement of the western Great Lakes region by Native Americans perhaps as early as 11,000 BCE. [1] The first European to explore Michigan, Étienne Brûlé , came in about 1620. [2] The area was part of Canada (New France) from 1668 to 1763. In 1701, the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac , along with fifty-one additional French-Canadians, founded a settlement called Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit , now the city of Detroit. When New France was defeated in the French and Indian War , it ceded the region to Britain in 1763. After the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War , the Treaty of Paris (1783) expanded the United States’ boundaries to include nearly all land east of the Mississippi River and south of Canada. Michigan was then part of the “Old Northwest”. From 1787 to 1800, it was part of the Northwest Territory . In 1800, the Indiana Territory was created, and most of the current state Michigan lay within it, with only the easternmost parts of the state remaining in the Northwest Territory. [3] In 1802, when Ohio was admitted to the Union , the whole of Michigan was attached to the Territory of Indiana, and so remained until 1805, when the Territory of Michigan was established. [4]

The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and New York City, and brought large numbers of people to Michigan and provided an inexpensive way to ship crops to market. In 1835 the people approved the Constitution of 1835, thereby forming a state government, although Congressional recognition was delayed pending resolution of a boundary dispute with Ohio known as the Toledo War . Congress awarded the “Toledo Strip” to Ohio. Michigan received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession and formally entered the Union as a state on January 26, 1837.

When iron and copper were discovered in the Upper Peninsula, impetus was created for the construction of the Soo Locks , completed in 1855. Along with mining, agriculture and logging became important industries. [5] In 1899 Henry Ford built his first automobile factory in Highland Park , an independent city that is now surrounded by Detroit. General Motors was founded in Flint in 1908. Automobile assembly and associated manufacturing soon dominated Detroit, and the economy of Michigan.

The Great Depression of the 1930s affected Michigan more severely than many other places because of its industrial base. [5] However, the state recovered in the post World War II years. The Mackinac Bridge connecting the Upper and Lower Peninsulas was completed and opened in 1957. By the 1960s, racial tensions produced unrest through the nation, and Detroit experienced a dramatic instance with the 12th Street Riot in 1967. By the 1980s, the state saw a decline in automobile sales and unemployment climbed. Michigan continues to diversify its economy away from its dependence on the automobile industry.


  • 1 Early history
  • 2 From 1763 to 1776
  • 3 From 1776 to 1837
  • 4 From 1837 to 1860
    • 4.1 Politics
  • 5 1860 to 1900
    • 5.1 Civil War
    • 5.2 Gilded Age
    • 5.3 Pingree
  • 6 1900 to 1941
    • 6.1 Automobiles
    • 6.2 Immigrants
    • 6.3 Progressivism
    • 6.4 Women
    • 6.5 Depression
    • 6.6 Unions
  • 7 After 1941
  • 8 Further reading
    • 8.1 Surveys and reference
    • 8.2 Historiography
    • 8.3 Specialty studies
    • 8.4 Race, ethnicity and immigration
  • 9 Other resources
  • 10 See also
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 External links

Early history[ edit ]

Further information: Pays d’en Haut

Michigan in 1718, Guillaume de L’Isle map, approximate state area highlighted.

The area was inhabited from about 1000 B.C. to 1000 A.D. by the Native American Hopewell culture . Later, according to Oral histories, Algonquian peoples from the East Coast were driven west when Iroquoian people migrated to the region from central Canada and took their original homelands—These being the ancestors of the Ojibwe, Odawa, Potowatomi, Mascouten & Miami. Archaeology shows that this probably occurred during the 12th-13th centuries. Originally, the northern peninsula was largely claimed by the Ojibwe nation, although the border region of Wisconsin was claimed by the Menominee . Given that one of the oldest recorded names for the tribe was also the Mackinac, [6] they most likely predate the other Algonquians in the region. The entire southern peninsula was home to a tribe called the Mascouten [7] [8] until the Beaver Wars , which was probably home to a mixture of Algonquian & Siouan peoples before. Their southern border seems to very clearly be the Maumee River of Ohio & their territory extended around Lake Michigan into Indiana. During the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois of New York pushed other tribes in league with the French hard against Lake Huron, therefore several tribes migrated into Michigan & declared war on the Mascouten & Miami. The most likely identity for these tribes were the Erie, Chonnonton & Anishinaabeg. The Iroquoian tribes quickly continued on into northern & eastern Ohio & the Anishinaabeg groups seem to have formed the Sauk & Fauk tribes by the time of the oldest surviving maps of the region, 1641. Either this, or the Sauk & Fauk were chased into the region after defeats further east. Due to the Beaver Wars, the Mascouten migrated down to settle around the Wabash River.

Given the fact that they are culturally related & the Mascouten disappear from maps of the region around the same time that the new name appears, they may have later become known as the Wea, or Wabash tribe. [9] [10] [11]

Afterwards, the Iroquois defeated the other Iroquoian tribes of northern Ohio—the Chonnonton, Erie & Petun—and continued into southern Michigan by the 1660s. [12] With the Iroquoians having conquered the southern peninsula for themselves, the other Algonquians began to refer to the nearby lake as Michigan, which translates to “Big Cat” in their language. This is most likely supposed to be a reference to the Iroquoian water deity known as ‘Blue Panther’, or, more accurately, “Cat which Stalks Below.” [13] [14] They defeated the Sauk & Fauk, who migrated west and took refuge among the Ojibwe & Menominee. This caused other wars between Algonquian & Siouan peoples within the following decades. [15]

Later, the Anishinaabeg tribes north of Lake Superior (who were already allied with the Huron) migrated down to the Lake Erie region, claiming some land in southern Michigan. In the U.S., they were known as the Odawa, & in Canada they were known as the Mississaugas —both deriving from tribal & subtribal names of the Anishinaabeg. The French migrated west, settling the colony of Illinois around 1680, which claimed all the land between the Great Lakes, Ohio River, Mississippi River & Appalachian mountains. Together with their native allies, they chased the Iroquois out of the region by 1701, forcing them to sign a treaty recognizing the Niagara River & the Ohio-Pennsylvania borders as the ends of their lands.

In the meantime, other tribes which had settled in Ohio were continuously pushed west by new settlers. Some settled in southern Michigan, however these were mostly the Iroquoian Wyandot . Rumor also has it that a group of Piscataway (An Algonquian tribe from Maryland) called the Conoy migrated into West Virginia & were noted as living around modern-day Detroit by 1819. [16] If true, they most likely merged with the Odawa. During the War of 1812, tribes who sided against the United States were punished by seizure of land. With the Indian Removal Act (best known for causing the Trail of Tears in the south) of the 1830s, many natives were pushed away from Ohio & Michigan, many choosing to return to Canada. Despite this, many native tribesmen were able to remain, if they forewent their tribal allegiances & became American citizens. It was the later laws of 50 years later, outlawing Native American culture to control other tribes of the west, which permanently destroyed this heritage. [17]

Map of the British and French settlements in North America in 1750, before the French and Indian War (1754 to 1763)

The Ojibwe called their land Mishi-Anishinaabaki (Mey-shih-Ah-ney-shih-nah-baaah-key), or Greater Anishinaabe Land. Since Anishinaabe was a collective term for the Ojibwe, Odawa & Potowatomi/ Nishnabe, who formed a governed confederacy known as the Three Council Fires, [18] most of the Algonquian peoples around Lake Superior referred to their lands as ‘something Anishinaabaki.’ This most likely confused the French, who chose to simply translate the ‘Mishi’ part as “Superior.” Although the Anishinaabeg (plural) didn’t have a true, organized government (They would usually elect temporary leaders called Ogidamoo in the moment. [19] ), the sacred site of their council fire, where they would conduct important political business, was known as Michilimackinac . Today, it’s known as Mackinac Island . The Mascouten are supposedly so named for calling their original homeland of southern Michigan “Maskoutenich,” or “The Treeless Land,” for the Erie Plains region. [20] [21]

The first European explorer to visit Michigan was the Frenchman Étienne Brûlé in 1620, who began his expedition from Quebec City on the orders of Samuel de Champlain and traveled as far as the Upper Peninsula . Eventually, the area became part of Canada , one of the large colonial provinces of New France . The first permanent European settlement in Michigan was founded in 1668 at Sault Ste. Marie by Jacques Marquette , a French missionary.

The French built several trading posts, forts, and villages in Michigan during the late 17th century. Among them, the most important was Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in 1701; it became the city of Detroit . Up until this time, French activities in the region were limited to hunting, trapping, trading with and the conversion of local Indians, and some limited subsistence farming. By 1760, the Michigan countryside had only a few hundred white inhabitants.

From 1763 to 1776[ edit ]

Michigan as part of the Province of Quebec 1774-1776.

Territorial disputes between French and British colonists helped start the French and Indian War as part of the larger Seven Years’ War , which took place from 1754 to 1763 and resulted in the defeat of France. As part of the Treaty of Paris , the French ceded all of their North American colonies east of the Mississippi River to Britain. Thus the future Michigan was handed over to the British. However, since 1761, the Indians in the area were not happy with the way the British treated them. In 1763, the Indians were furious that Great Britain had gained control of the area and war began at Fort Detroit under the leadership of Pontiac, and quickly spread throughout the region. The war was known as Pontiac’s War and lasted three years. Eight British forts were taken; others, including Fort Detroit and Fort Pitt, were held by the British garrisons. In 1774, the area was made part of the British province of Quebec . During this period Detroit grew slowly; the rest of Michigan continued to be sparsely populated because the British were more interested in the fur trade and peace with the natives than in settlement of the area. [22]

From 1776 to 1837[ edit ]

Unfinished contemporaneous painting of the American diplomatic negotiators of the Treaty of Paris which brought official conclusion to the Revolutionary War and gave possession of Michigan and other territory to the new United States.

During the American Revolution , the local European population, who were primarily American colonists that supported independence, rebelled against Britain. The British, with the help of local tribes, continually attacked American settlements in the region starting in 1776 and conquered Detroit . In 1781, Spanish raiders led by a French Captain Eugene Poure travelled by river and overland from St Louis , liberated British-held Fort St Joseph , and handed authority over the settlement to the Americans the following day. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, and Michigan passed into the control of the newly formed United States of America. The states of New York, Virginia, Massachusetts then Connecticut ceded their territorial rights over the land. In 1787, the region became part of the Northwest Territory . The majority of Indians did not recognize the new government and instead formed the Western Confederacy . General Anthony Wayne with his Kentucky marksmen won the Battle of Fallen Timbers which led to the end of hostilities and treaties recognizing federal government sovereignty. The British, however, continued to occupy Detroit and other fortifications. Under terms negotiated in the 1794 Jay Treaty , Britain withdrew from Detroit and Michilimackinac in 1796. Questions remained over the boundary for many years, and the United States did not have uncontested control of the Upper Peninsula and Drummond Island until 1818 and 1847, respectively.

The land which is now Michigan was made part of Indiana Territory in 1800. Most was declared as Michigan Territory in 1805, including all of the Lower Peninsula . During the War of 1812 , British forces from Canada captured Detroit and Fort Mackinac early on, giving them a strategic advantage and encouraging native revolt against the United States. American troops retook Detroit in 1813 and Fort Mackinac was returned to the Americans at the end of the war in 1815.

Over the 1810s, the indigenous Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi tribes increasingly decided to oppose white settlement and sided with the British against the U.S. government.

Map of the original 13 colonies and their territories, note that Michigan was the object of multiple claims

Map of the Surveyed Part of the Territory of Michigan by Orange Risdon, 1825

After their defeat in the War of 1812, the tribes were forced to sell all of their land claims to the U.S. federal government by the Treaty of Saginaw and the Treaty of Chicago . After the war, the government built forts in some of the northwest territory, such as at Sault Ste. Marie. In the 1820s, the U.S. government assigned Indian agents to work with the tribes, including arranging land cessions and relocation. They forced most of the Native Americans to relocate from Michigan to Indian reservations further west.

In the 1820s and 1830s migrants from New England began moving to what is now Michigan in large numbers (though there was a trickle of New England settlers who arrived before this date). [23] These were ” Yankee ” settlers, that is to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England during the colonial era. [24] While most of them came to Michigan directly from New England, there were many who came from upstate New York . These were people whose parents had moved from New England to upstate New York in the immediate aftermath of the American Revolution . Due to the prevalence of New Englanders and New England transplants from upstate New York, Michigan was very culturally contiguous with early New England culture for much of its early history. The Yankee migration to Michigan was a result of several factors, one of which was the overpopulation of New England. The old stock Yankee population had large families, often bearing up to ten children in one household. Most people were expected to have their own piece of land to farm, and due to the massive and nonstop population boom, land in New England became scarce as every son claimed his own farmstead. As a result, there was not enough land for every family to have a self-sustaining farm, and Yankee settlers began leaving New England for the Midwestern United States . This resulted in Michigan’s population expanding rapidly in the 1820s. [25] The Erie Canal caused such an upsurge in immigration from New England that by 1837 “it seemed as if all New England were coming” according to one pioneer. [26] New England families considered it a route to the “promised land”. [27] As a result of this heritage, the New England element of Michigan’s population would remain culturally and politically dominant for a long time. [28]

Michigan’s oldest university, the University of Michigan was founded in Detroit in 1817 and was later moved to its present location in Ann Arbor . The state’s oldest cultural institution, the Historical Society of Michigan, was established by territorial governor Lewis Cass and explorer Henry Schoolcraft in 1828.

Rising settlement prompted the elevation of Michigan Territory to that of the present-day state . In 1835, the federal government enacted a law that would have created a State of Michigan. A territorial dispute with Ohio over the Toledo Strip , a stretch of land including the city of Toledo , delayed the final accession of statehood. The disputed zone became part of Ohio by the order of a revised bill passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Andrew Jackson which also gave compensation to Michigan in the form of control of the Upper Peninsula. On January 26, 1837, Michigan became the 26th state of the Union.

From 1837 to 1860[ edit ]

Detroit , c. 1837, after a sketch by Frederick Grain

A map of Michigan by Henry Schenck Tanner , published in 1842, showing such county names as “Negwegon County,” “Okkuddo County,” and “Unwattin County,” prior to an 1843 legislative action renaming sixteen counties in northern Michigan. [29]

Agriculture remained the main economic activity before 1860. During the early 1840s, large deposits of copper and iron ores were discovered on the Upper Peninsula. Michigan became the leading U.S. source of these ores by the end of the century, thanks to the influx of experienced Cornish miners (from England) to supervise operations. Michigan remained a frontier society up until around the time of the Civil War. Michigan pioneers were overwhelmingly of New England origins, including New England transplants from upstate New York. The amount with which the New England Yankee population predominated made Michigan unique among frontier states in the antebellum period. Due to this heritage Michigan was on the forefront of the antislavery crusade and reforms during the 1840s and 1850s. Another result of this cultural influence was the strength of the Republican Party in Michigan. Long considered a “Yankee” party, Michigan would remain heavily Republican from the Civil War until the 1960s. The state’s leadership in public education is also directly attributable to the New England influence. Towns such as Vermontville, Bangor, Hartford, Rochester, Utica, and Palmyra Michigan were all named after towns in New England where the founders of those towns were from. The Congregational Church also was very strong in Michigan from most of Michigan’s history, due to the New England origins of the state. New Englanders and New England transplants from Upstate New York also filled the overwhelming majority of leadership roles in Michigan’s early legislatures. [30]

Politics[ edit ]

During the Second Party System (1830-1854), Michigan saw highly developed political parties mobilize the great mass of adult men. The Democratic Party dominated politics before the Civil War. It comprised numerous competing factions, including the federal officeholders who tried to control party affairs, local political organizations with their state legislators and postmasters who managed affairs locally; young anti-slavery activists, typically energized by pietistic ministers in the Baptist and Methodist churches—they fueled the Free Soil Party in 1848-52; Jacksonian Democrats who opposed taxes and government spending; Catholics, Episcopalians and liturgical Germans annoyed at the moralistic pietists; and residents in the newer western districts who resented the elitism and power of Detroiters. The outstanding Democratic leader was Lewis Cass , (1782-1866) who held numerous high offices and was the Democratic party’s losing candidate for president in 1848. Cass was best known for his moderation and support for democracy through popular sovereignty . [31] Nativism flared up briefly when the Democrats proposed to allow recent immigrants to vote before they became citizens, and the Whigs opposed. [32] [33] Fifteen of Michigan’s first eighteen governors were of Yankee origins, either being from New England or being born in upstate New York to parents who were from New England. [34]

The minority Whig party relied on conservative merchants, bankers and prosperous farmers, and especially on pietistic, moralistic Protestants from evangelical churches. Nationally, the Whig party collapsed in the 1850s as compromise proved impossible between the anti-slavery Northerners, and the pro-slavery Southerners. For a few years in the mid-1850s, nativist fears of foreign immigrants, especially Catholic Irishmen and Germans, motivated the Know-Nothing movement. It had little success beyond a brief control of city government in Marshall, Pontiac, Battle Creek, Mt. Clemens, Kalamazoo, and Grand Rapids.

The collapse of the old political system led to the realignment of voters and parties in the formation of the Third Party System , which formed in the mid-1850s and lasted until the mid-1890s. Michigan was dominated for 80 years by the new Republican Party , later nicknamed the GOP. First established in Jackson and other cities in 1854, it gathered together anti-slavery elements from the Whig, Know-Nothing and Democratic parties, and was a majority in Michigan by the end of the decade. The Democrats had always used equalitarianism as a way to attack the rich elitist Whigs. Now the Republicans turned the tables by charging that Michigan’s Democrats were in bed with the South’s “slave power aristocrats.” The Republicans encouraged the moralistic spirit of the pietists by turning it against slavery and the liquor traffic. [35]

1860 to 1900[ edit ]

Civil War[ edit ]

Main article: Michigan in the American Civil War

Michigan actively participated in the American Civil War sending thousands of volunteers. [36] A study of the cities of Grand Rapids and Niles shows an overwhelming surge of nationalism in 1861, whipping up enthusiasm for the war in all segments of society, and all political, religious, ethnic, and occupational groups. However, by 1862 the casualties were mounting and the war was increasingly focused on freeing the slaves in addition to preserving the Union. Copperhead Democrats called the war a failure, and it became more and more a partisan Republican effort. [37] Michigan voters remained evenly split between the parties in the presidential election of 1864. [38]

Gilded Age[ edit ]

After the war, the local economy became more varied and began to prosper. During the 1870s, the lumbering , railroads, dairy farming and diversified industry grew rapidly in the state. The population doubled between 1870 and 1890.

Toward the end of the century, the state government established a state school system on the German model, with public schools, high schools, normal schools or colleges for training teachers of lower grades, and colleges for classical academic studies and professors. It dedicated more funds to public education than did any other state in the nation. Within a few years, it established four-year curricula at its normal colleges for teachers, and was the first state to establish a full college program for them.

Railroads have been vital in the history of the population and trade of rough and finished goods in the state of Michigan. While some coastal settlements had previously existed supplied by sailing ships and steamers on the Great Lakes, the population, commercial, and industrial growth of the state further bloomed with the establishment of the railroad.

Pingree[ edit ]

In 1896, Detroit Mayor Hazen Pingree , a Yankee Republican, was elected governor. He was a social reformer who battled corporations and was an early leader of the Progressive Movement. During his four-year term, he promoted the regulation of railroad rates, equal taxation, and municipal ownership of public utilities. He also supported the direct election of U.S. senators; an eight-hour workday ; an income tax; primary elections; the referendum, the abolition of child labor, and compulsory arbitration of labor disputes. Opposition from Democrats and business-oriented Republicans blocked most of his proposals. Pingree expressed the Progressive fear of corporate power, saying, “I do not condemn corporations and rich men,” he said, “but I would keep them within their proper spheres. It is not safe to entrust the government of the country to the influence of Wall Street.” [39]

1900 to 1941[ edit ]

Urban Michigan grew rapidly in the early 20th century, pulled along by the automobile industry in Detroit and vicinity. The breakfast cereal industry was based in Battle Creek where two Kelloggs and a Post built on the local Seventh-day Adventist heritage and put the city on the map. Less flamboyantly, thousands of machine shops opened in medium and small cities across the state.

Automobiles[ edit ]

During the early 20th century, manufacturing industries became the main source of revenue for Michigan – in large part, because of the automobile . In 1897, the Olds Motor Vehicle Company opened a factory in Lansing. In 1903, Ford Motor Company was also founded nearby in Detroit. In 1904 William Durant of the Flint, Michigan Durant Coach Works, a maker of horse carriages, set his sights on Buick Motor Cars which he soon acquired. With the mass production of the Ford Model T , Detroit became the world capital of the auto industry. General Motors was formed a few years later as William Durant along with Alfred Sloan purchased Oldsmobile, Cadillac, Oakland and other car companies. They soon moved their headquarters from Flint, Michigan to Detroit, Michigan. [40] General Motors is based in Detroit, Chrysler is located in Auburn Hills, and Ford is headquartered in nearby Dearborn . Both corporations constructed large industrial complexes in the Detroit metropolitan area, exemplified by the River Rouge Plant , which have made Michigan a national leader in manufacturing since the 1910s. This industrial base produced greatly during World War I , filling a huge demand for military vehicles.

Jackson was home to one of the first car industry developments. Even before Detroit began building cars on assembly lines, Jackson was busy making parts for cars and putting them together in 1901. By 1910, the auto industry became Jackson’s main industry. Over twenty different cars were once made in Jackson. Including: Reeves, Jaxon, Jackson, CarterCar, Orlo, Whiting, Butcher and Gage, Buick, Janney, Globe, Steel Swallow, C.V.I., Imperial, Ames-Dean, Cutting, Standard Electric, Duck, Briscoe, Argo, Hollier, Hackett, Marion-Handly, Gem, Earl, Wolverine, and Kaiser-Darrin. Today the auto industry remains one of the largest employers of skilled machine operators in Jackson County .

Immigrants[ edit ]

With the expansion of industry, hundreds of thousands of migrants from the South and immigrants from eastern and southern Europe were attracted to Detroit. In a short time, it became the fourth largest city in the country – housing shortages persisted for years even as new housing was developed throughout the city. Ethnic immigrant enclaves rapidly developed where churches, groceries, clubs and businesses supported unique communities. The WPA guide to the city in 1939 noted that there were students speaking more than 35 languages in the public schools. Ethnic festivals were a regular part of the city’s culture. At the same time, fear of Catholics was strong, and fueled the nativism of the second Ku Klux Klan recruited widely in the state. The Klan peaked in 1925, but membership fell quickly after its internal scandals were exposed. Reinhold Niebuhr , a German-American Protestant minister trained at Yale Divinity School became nationally famous as a Detroit minister who attacked the KKK, which was strong among white Protestants in the city. [41]

Progressivism[ edit ]

The cities of Michigan were centers of municipal reform during the Progressive Era . Using Kalamazoo as her base, Caroline Bartlett Crane (1858–1935) became a nationally famous expert on municipal sanitation . She was nonpolitical, but scientific in her methods, and energetic in her approach. She made 60 surveys and studies in 14 states that dealt with housing conditions in tenements , of schools, jails, water and sewer systems. She identified and found solutions for air pollution. Crane had a sharp eye for inefficiency, waste, and mismanagement, and was always ready to point out improvements and explain what the best practices were in the nation. [42]

A representative politician was George E. Ellis, mayor of Grand Rapids (1906–16). He is remembered as the most dynamic and innovative mayor in the city’s history, as well as a powerful political boss who built a coalition of working-class ethnic voters, combined with middle-class reform elements. He broadened the base of political participation, and was on the left or liberal side of the political spectrum. [43] Somewhat more conservative, and much better known, was Mayor Hazen Pingree of Detroit (1889–1896), who brought progressivism to the governor’s mansion with his election in 1896. Pingree was elected mayor in 1889 by promising to expose and end corruption in city paving contracts, sewer contracts, and the school board. He fought privately owned utility monopolies , and set up competing companies owned by the city. He fought the street railway interest, demanding fares be lowered to three cents. When the depression of 1893 caused large-scale unemployment, Pingree expanded welfare programs, initiated public works programs for the unemployed, built new schools, parks, and public baths, and set aside plots of vacant city land for workers to plant their own vegetable gardens. As the Republican governor, he promoted higher railroad taxes to pay for his reforms. [44] After Pingree left Detroit in 1897, the local Democratic ward leaders rebuilt their machine, using an ethnic base. This changed after 1910 as the old-stock Yankee Protestant business leaders, especially from the automobile industry, led a Progressive Era crusade for efficiency. They elected their own men to office, typified by automaker James J. Couzens , who was mayor of Detroit 1919–22, and a powerful US Senator, 1922–36. The critical change took place in 1918 when the voters 1918 changed the Common Council from a 42-man body elected on a partisan basis from 21 wards, to a nine-man unit, elected on a non-partisan basis from the city at-large. The ethnics (especially the Germans) and the Democrats lost their political base. [45]

Women[ edit ]

Most young women took jobs before marriage, then quit. Before the growth of high schools after 1900, most women left school after the 8th grade at about age 15. Ciani (2005) shows that type of work they did reflected their ethnicity and marital status. African American mothers often chose day labor, usually as domestic servants, because of the flexibility it afforded. Most mothers receiving pensions were white and sought work only when necessary. [46]

Across the state middle class homemakers shaped numerous new and expanded charitable and professional associations, and promoted mothers’ pensions, and expanded forms of social welfare. Many of the Protestant homemakers were active in the temperance and suffrage movements as well. The Detroit Federation of Women’s Clubs (DFWC) promoted a very wide range of activities for civic minded middle-class women who conformed to traditional gender roles. The Federation argued that safety and health issues were of greatest concern to mothers and could only be solved by improving municipal conditions outside the home. The Federation pressured Detroit officials to upgrade schools, water supplies and sanitation facilities, and to require safe food handling, and traffic safety. However, the membership was divided on going beyond these issues or collaborating with ethnic or groups or labor unions; it refused to stretch traditional gender boundaries, giving it a conservative reputation. [47]

Depression[ edit ]

The Great Depression caused severe economic hardship in Michigan. Thousands of auto industry workers were dismissed along with other workers from several sectors of the state economy. The financial suffering was aggravated by the fact that remaining copper reserves in the state lay deep underground. With the discovery of copper finds in other states located in less deep rock layers, local mining fell sharply and most miners left the region or resigned themselves to short hours and long unemployment. After decades of GOP dominance, the Democrats came back to power, as the business-oriented Republican economic policies had failed, the Democrats were energized, prohibition was discredited, and Franklin D. Roosevelt offered a New Deal . Washington spent heavily on relief, recovery, and reform, relieved cities of the burden of relief, and buttressed a political realignment that gave the Democratic Coalition parity with the Republican Party in Michigan. By 1936 the realignment was secure, as powerful new industrial labor unions, especially the United Auto Workers turned the factories from Republican bastions to Democratic strongholds, and the ethnic and black population had shifter to the Democrats. [48]

Young men from relief families signed up for six-month tours in one of the state’s 50 Civilian Conservation Corps camps in rural areas. They were paid five dollars a month, plus room, board, clothing and medical care, while their families received $25 a month. The Works Progress Administration was the largest federal agency. It hired more than 500,000 unemployed people (80% men) in Michigan alone to construct major public works such as roads, public buildings, and sewer systems—it was a larger labor force that the state’s entire auto industry.

Unions[ edit ]

Union members occupying a General Motors body factory during the Flint Sit-Down Strike of 1937 which spurred the organization of militant CIO unions in auto industry

Thanks to new federal laws, labor unions grew rapidly after 1935, and for the first time became a major presence in large factories. The Flint Sit-Down Strike of 1936-37 was the decisive event in the formation of the United Auto Workers Union (UAW). Strikers occupied several General Motors plants for more than forty days, and repelled (in nonviolent fashion) the efforts of the state courts, local police and National Guard to remove them. GM signed a contract that legitimized the UAW, and its membership in the next year grew from 30,000 to 500,000 members. [49] [50]

During World War II Walter Reuther took control of the UAW, and soon led major strikes in 1946. He ousted the Communists from the positions of power, especially at the Ford local 600. He was one of the most articulate and energetic leaders of the CIO, and of the merged AFL-CIO . Using brilliant negotiating tactics he leveraged high profits for the Big Three automakers into higher wages and superior benefits for UAW members.

After 1941[ edit ]

Gerald Ford , a politician from Grand Rapids who was elected to the House of Representatives thirteen times and also served as House Minority Leader and then Vice President , became the 38th President of the United States after the resignation of Richard Nixon .

The entry of the United States into World War II in 1941 the same year ended the economic contraction in Michigan. Wartime required the large-scale production of weapons and military vehicles, leading to a massive number of new jobs being filled. After the end of the war, both the automotive and copper mining industries recovered. [51]

Starting during World War I, the Great Migration fueled the movement of hundreds of thousands of African-Americans from the South to industrial jobs in Michigan especially in Detroit. Migration of white southerners from Appalachia to the city increased the volatility of change. Population increases continued with industrial expansion during World War II and afterward. African Americans contributed to a new vibrant urban culture, with expansion of new music, food and culture.

The postwar years were initially a prosperous time for industrial workers, who achieved middle-class livelihoods, fostered the Baby Boom , and sought better, more spacious housing in safer neighborhoods. These were the years of the creation and popularity of Motown Records . By late mid-century, however, deindustrialization and restructuring cost many jobs. The economy suffered and the city postponed needed changes. Neglect of social problems and urban decline fed racial conflicts. In 1967 there was a major riot in Detroit that burned out the inner city, caused tens of millions of dollars in damages, and resulted in 43 deaths with The U.S. Army being called in to stop it. The violence then spread to several other Michigan cities and was the trigger for a mass migration to the suburbs.

The 1973 Oil Crisis caused economic recession in the United States and greatly affected the Michigan economy. Afterward, automobile companies in the United States faced greater multinational competition, especially from Japan. As a consequence, domestic auto makers enacted cost-cutting measures to remain competitive at home and abroad. Unemployment rates rose dramatically in the state.

Throughout the 1970s, Michigan possessed the highest unemployment rate of any U.S. state. Large spending cuts to education and public health were repeatedly made in an attempt to reduce growing state budget deficits. A strengthening of the auto industry and an increase in tax revenue stabilized government and household finances in the 1980s. Increasing competition by Japanese and South Korean auto companies continues to challenge the state economy, which depends heavily on the automobile industry. Since the late 1980s, the government of Michigan has actively sought to attract new industries, thus reducing economic reliance on a single sector.

Further reading[ edit ]

Surveys and reference[ edit ]

  • Bald, F. Clever, Michigan in Four Centuries (1961)
  • Browne, William P. and Kenneth VerBurg. Michigan Politics & Government: Facing Change in a Complex State University of Nebraska Press. 1995.
  • Catton, Bruce. Michigan: A Bicentennial History (1976) popular, focus on 19th century.
  • Daly, Matthew L., ed. Michigan Encyclopedia 2008-2009 (2008), 1354 pages re: geography, archaeology, state and local history, governors, etc.
  • Dunbar, Willis F. and George S. May. Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State, 3rd ed. (1995)
  • Farmer, Silas (1889). The history of Detroit and Michigan; or, The metropolis illustrated; a full record of territorial days in Michigan, and the annals of Wayne County . 
    • Farmer, Silas (1890). History of Detroit and Wayne County and early Michigan: a chronological cyclopedia of the past and present . , Google version; full text
  • Press, Charles et al., Michigan Political Atlas (1984).
  • Rubenstein, Bruce A. and Lawrence E. Ziewacz. Michigan: A History of the Great Lakes State (Harlan Davidson 2002) online
  • Sisson, Richard, Ed. The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia (2006), 1890pp, articles by scholars
  • Weeks, George, Stewards of the State: The Governors of Michigan (Historical Society of Michigan, 1987).

Historiography[ edit ]

  • Editors. “50 Essential Books on Michigan History” Michigan History Magazine (2002) 86#3 online
  • Hathaway, Richard J., ed. Michigan: Visions of Our Past (1989), articles by scholars
  • Kestenbaum, Justin L., ed. The Making of Michigan, 1820-1860: A Pioneer Anthology (1990).
  • May, George, and Herbert Brinks, eds. A Michigan Reader: 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1865 (1974)
  • Warner, Robert M., and C. Warren Vander Hill, eds. A Michigan Reader: 1865 to the Present (1974)

Specialty studies[ edit ]

See also: History of Detroit § Further reading
  • Barnard, John. Walter Reuther and the Rise of the Auto Workers (1983)
  • Berthelot, Helen W. Win Some, Lose Some: G. Mennen Williams and the New Democrats (1995), governor in 1950s
  • Boles, Frank. “Michigan Newspapers: A Two-Hundred-Year Review,” Michigan Historical Review (2010) 36#12 pp 30–69 online
  • Buley, R. Carlyle. The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period; 1815-1840 (2 vol. 1951); Pulitzer Prize
  • Clive, Alan. State of War: Michigan in World War II (U of Michigan Press, 1979)
  • Dunbar, Willis F. (1969). All Aboard! A History of Railroads in Michigan. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans . OCLC   54650 . 
  • Fine, Sidney. Expanding The Frontiers of Civil Rights”: Michigan, 1948-1968 (2000)
  • Fine, Sidney. Frank Murphy (3 vols. 1975-1984)
  • Fine, Sidney. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-1937 (1969).
  • Formisano, Ronald P. The Birth of Mass Political Parties in Michigan, 1827-1861 (1971)
  • Gilpin, Alec R. The Territory of Michigan, 1805-1837 (1970)
  • Hershock, Martin J. The Paradox of Progress: Economic Change, Individual Enterprise, and Political Culture in Michigan, 1837-1878. (2003)
  • Holli, Melvin G. Reform in Detroit: Hazen S. Pingree and Urban Politics (1969), on 1890s
  • Jensen, Richard J. The winning of the Midwest: social and political conflict, 1888-1896 (1971) online
  • Karamanski, Theodore. Deep Woods Frontier: A History of Logging in Northern Michigan (1989).
  • Klunder, Willard Carl. Lewis Cass and the Politics of Moderation (1996).
  • May, George. A Most Unique Machine: The Michigan Origins of the American Automobile Industry (1975).
  • Nevins, Allan, and Frank E. Hill. Ford (3 vol 1954-1963), joint biography of Henry Ford and the Ford company
  • Nolan, Alan T. The Iron Brigade: A Military History (1994), famous Civil War combat unit
  • Rich, Wilbur. Coleman Young and Detroit Politics: From Social Activist to Power Broker (Wayne State University Press, 1988).
  • Streeter, Floyd. Political parties in Michigan, 1837-1860 (1918) online

Race, ethnicity and immigration[ edit ]

  • Alvarado, Rudolph V., and Sonya Yvette Alvarado. Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Michigan (2003)
  • Badaczewski, Dennis. Poles in Michigan (2002)
  • Badillo, David A. Latinos in Michigan (2003)
  • Cantor, Judith Levin. Jews in Michigan (2001)
  • Cleland, Charles E. Rates of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan’s Native Americans (1992)
  • Davidson, Clifford. Norwegians in Michigan (2009)
  • Forrester, Alan T. Scots in Michigan (2003)
  • Fuller, George N. Economic and Social Beginnings of Michigan: A Study of the Settlement of the Lower Peninsula during the Territorial Period, 1805-1837 (1916) online
  • Gray, Susan E. The Yankee West: Community Life on the Michigan Frontier (U. of North Carolina Press 1996) online
  • Harmese, Larry Ten. Dutch in Michigan (2002)
  • Hassoun, Rosina J. Arab Americans in Michigan (2005)
  • Helweg, Arthur W. Asian Indians in Michigan (2002)
  • Kilar, Jeremy W. Germans in Michigan (2002)
  • Magnaghi, Russell M. Italians in Michigan (2001)
  • Metress, Seamus P. and Eileen K. Metress. Irish in Michigan (2006)
  • Mead, Rebecca J.Swedes in Michigan (2012) excerpt and text search
  • Vander Hill, C. Warren. Settling the Great Lakes Frontier: Immigration to Michigan, 1837-1924 (Lansing: Michigan Historical Commission, 1970)
  • Walker, Lewis, ed. Discovering the Peoples of Michigan Reader (2008) 115pp, short essays on 24 ethnic groups
  • White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (1991). excerpt and text search
  • Wilson, Brian C. Yankees in Michigan (2008)

Other resources[ edit ]

  • Bureau of Business Research, Wayne State U. Michigan Statistical Abstract (1987).
  • Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University, Bibliographies for Michigan by region, counties, etc. .
  • Michigan, State of. Michigan Manual (annual), elaborate detail on state government.
  • Michigan Historical Review Central Michigan University (quarterly).
  • Public Sector Consultants. Michigan in Brief. An Issues Handbook (annual)
  • Larry J. Wagenaar and Izzi Bendall. Michigan History Directory of Historical Societies, Museums, Archives, Historic Sites, Agencies and Commissions (13th Ed. 2011)

See also[ edit ]

  • flag Michigan portal
  • Timeline of Michigan history
  • Historical outline of Michigan
  • History of Detroit
  • History of Ford Motor Company
  • History of General Motors
  • History of railroads in Michigan
  • History of the Midwestern United States
  • International Boundary Waters Treaty
  • Inland Northern American English
  • Northwest Ordinance
  • List of automobile manufacturers of Michigan
  • List of counties in Michigan
  • List of museums in Michigan
  • Sixty Years’ War
  • Timeline of Michigan history
  • Timeline of the Toledo Strip/War
  • War of 1812

Notes[ edit ]

  1. ^ Quimby, George Irving (1970). Indian Culture and European Trade Goods: The Archeology of the Historic Period in the Western Great Lakes Region , p. 15. University of Wisconsin Press.
  2. ^ Dunbar, Willis F. & May, George F. (3rd rev. ed. 1995). Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State , p. 19. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
  3. ^ Dunbar (1995), pp. 106-07.
  4. ^ Utley, Henry M. & Cutcheon, Byron M. (1906). Michigan as a Province, Territory and State: Michigan as a Territory, from Its Incorporation as Part of the Northwest Territory to Its Organization as a State , p. 138.
  5. ^ a b Daly, Matthew L., et al. (eds.) (2008). Michigan Encyclopedia , pp. 56-62. Somerset Publishers, Inc.
  6. ^ Rodesch, Gerrold C. (1984). “Jean Nicolet”. University of Wisconsin–Green Bay. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  7. ^ “Mascouten Tribe – Access Genealogy” . 9 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  8. ^…/Publications/oa51-2-steckley.pdf
  9. ^ “Mascouten” . Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  10. ^ “EARLY INDIAN MIGRATION IN OHIO” . Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  11. ^ Johnson, Basil “The Manitous: The Spiritual World of the Ojibway”. 1995
  12. ^ Brandon, William (1961). Josephy, Alvin M., ed. American Heritage Book of Indians. American Heritage Pub. Co. p. 187.
  13. ^ Nichols, John & Nyholm, Earl “Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe”. 1994
  14. ^ Froman, Francis & Keye, Alfred J. “English-Cayuga/ Cayuga-English Dictionary”. 2014
  15. ^ Rites of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan’s Native Americans, Charles E. Cleland, University of Michigan Press, 1992.
  16. ^ Kavanagh et al. 2009.
  17. ^ “Indian Removal Act of 1830 – Legends of America” . Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  18. ^ Loew, Patty; “Indian Nations of Wisconsin: Histories of Endurance and Renewal”; Madison, Wisconsin Historical Society Press; 2001.
  19. ^ Johnson, Basil “The Manitous: The Spiritual World of the Ojibway” 2001.
  20. ^ Erdrich, Louise “Books & Islands in Ojibwe Country” 2014.
  21. ^ “The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents Volume 55”.
  22. ^ Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (1991)
  23. ^ The Expansion of New England: The Spread of New England Settlement and Institutions to the Mississippi River, 1620-1865 by Lois Kimball Mathews Rosenberry, Houghton Mifflin, 1909 pg. 223
  24. ^ The Yankee Exodus: An Account of Migration from New England by Stewart Holbrook pg. 2
  25. ^ Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State
    By Willis F. Dunbar, George S. May pg. 91
  26. ^ he Expansion of New England: The Spread of New England Settlement and Institutions to the Mississippi River, 1620-1865 by Lois Kimball Mathews Rosenberry, Houghton Mifflin, 1909 pg. 226
  27. ^ Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State By Willis F. Dunbar, George S. May pg. 160
  28. ^ Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State By Willis F. Dunbar, George S. May pg. 91
  29. ^ John H. Long, Editor; Peggy Tuck Sinko, Associate Editor and Historical Compiler; Douglas Knox, Book Digitizing Director; Emily Kelley, Research Associate; Laura Rico-Beck, GIS Specialist and Digital Compiler; Peter Siczewicz, ArcIMS Interactive Map Designer; Robert Will, Cartographic Assistant (2007). “Michigan: Consolidated Chronology of State and County Boundaries” . Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. Newberry Library . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ( link )
  30. ^ Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State By Willis F. Dunbar, George S. May pg. 170
  31. ^ Willard Carl Klunder, Lewis Cass and the Politics of Moderation (1996)
  32. ^ Ronald P. Formisano, The Birth of Mass Political Parties in Michigan, 1827-1861 (1971)
  33. ^ Bruce A. Rubenstein and Lawrence E. Ziewacz, Michigan: A History of the Great Lakes State (2002) p 100
  34. ^ Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State By Willis F. Dunbar, George S. May pg. 311
  35. ^ Rubenstein and Ziewacz, Michigan: A History of the Great Lakes State (2002) p 100-103
  36. ^ Robert E., Mitchell, “Civil War Recruiting and Recruits from Ever-Changing Labor Pools: Midland County, Michigan, as a Case Study,” Michigan Historical Review, 35 (Spring 2009), 29–60.
  37. ^ Martin J. Hershock, “Copperheads and Radicals: Michigan Partisan Politics during the Civil War Era, 1860-1865,” Michigan Historical Review (1992) 18#1 pp 28-69
  38. ^ Peter Bratt, “A Great Revolution in Feeling: The American Civil War in Niles and Grand Rapids, Michigan,” Michigan Historical Review (2005) 31#2 pp 43-66.
  39. ^ Russel B. Nye, Midwestern Progressive Politics: A Historical Study of Its Origins and Development, 1870-1950 (1951) p 205
  40. ^ Sloan Museum exhibits, Flint, MI
  41. ^ Craig Fox, Everyday Klansfolk: White Protestant Life and the KKK in 1920s Michigan (2011)
  42. ^ Alan S. Brown, “Caroline Bartlett Crane and Urban Reform,” Michigan History, July 1972, Vol. 56 Issue 4, pp 287-301
  43. ^ Anthony R. Travis, “Mayor George Ellis: Grand Rapids Political Boss And Progressive Reformer,” Michigan History, March 1974, Vol. 58 Issue 2, pp 101-130
  44. ^ Melvin G. Holli, Reform in Detroit: Hazen S. Pingree and Urban Politics (Oxford U.P., 1969)
  45. ^ Harry Barnard, Independent Man: The Life of Senator James Couzens (1958)
  46. ^ Kyle E. Ciani, “Hidden Laborers: Female Day Workers In Detroit, 1870-1920,” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, Jan 2005, Vol. 4 Issue 1, pp 23-51
  47. ^ Jayne Morris-Crowther, “Municipal Housekeeping: The Political Activities of the Detroit Federation of Women’s Clubs in the 1920s,” Michigan Historical Review, March 2004, Vol. 30 Issue 1, pp 31-57
  48. ^ Philip A. Grant, Jr., “The Presidential Election of 1932 in Michigan,” Michigan Historical Review (1986) 12#1 pp 83-94
  49. ^ Sidney Fine, “The General Motors Sit-Down Strike: A Re-examination,”American Historical Review (1965) 70#3 pp. 691-71 in JSTOR
  50. ^ Sidney Fine, Sit-Down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-1937 (1969)
  51. ^ Alan Clive, State of War: Michigan in World War II (1979)

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      Young Adult Fiction

      The Catastrophic History of You and Me

      The Catastrophic History of You and Me





      4.4 (5)


      Write Review

      The Catastrophic History of You and Me
      Jess Rothenberg
      Contemporary Fantasy
      Age Range
      Release Date
      February 21, 2012
      Buy This Book

      Brie’s life ends at sixteen: Her boyfriend tells her he doesn’t love her, and the news breaks her heart–literally.

      But now that she’s D&G (dead and gone), Brie is about to discover that love is way more complicated than she ever imagined. Back in Half Moon Bay, her family has begun to unravel. Her best friend has been keeping a secret about Jacob, the boy Brie loved and lost–and the truth behind his shattering betrayal. And then there’s Patrick, Brie’s mysterious new guide and resident Lost Soul…who just might hold the key to her forever after.

      With Patrick’s help, Brie will have to pass through the five stages of grief before she’s ready to move on. But how do you begin again, when your heart is still in pieces?


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      1 reviews

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      Top 50 Reviewer

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      Writing Style 

      A Remarkable Debut

      The Catastrophic History of You and Me by Jess Rothenberg was one of those all around awesome kind of books. My love for this book was clearly meant to be from the moment I saw all the references to Disney Princesses and the chapter titles, which are the best. My favorite was “Shot Through The Heart and You’re to Blame”. Jess Rothenberg has written a remarkable debut that I did not want to put down.

      By the time I had finish maybe five pages of this one, I had to stop and just marvel at the writing. Jess Rothenberg is one talented lady and the story was one that I could not help but to get caught up in. The Catastrophic History of You and Me perfectly balances the funny, lighter side of Brie’s story with entirely heartbreaking moments.

      I loved Jess Rothenberg’s spin on the afterlife. It was completely unlike other books that deal with the same subject, and I can say that it was definitely my favorite portrayal I have read yet. I loved following Brie through her journey and seeing where it would take her next.

      The one pitfall for The Catastrophic History of You and Me was Brie herself throughout part of the middle of the book. She just deviated from the character I loved at the beginning of the book. Hamloaf, you are most definitely the coolest dog to walk the pages of young adult. Patrick was a character who really grew on me as the book went on. At first, I was like I like you. You’re kind of like a stand up comedian. But as the book went on, he become a much deeper character than that and I loved him.

      Fans of Leila Sales will eat this one up, with its charming characters and funny plot. The voice in The Catastrophic History of You and Me is incredible. Once you start reading this one, you won’t want to put it down. Jess Rothenberg has written a heartbreakingly beautiful debut, and I am very eager to see more from her in the future.

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      Top 100 Reviewer

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      A Cute Story Despite the Whole Death Thing

      Brie (like the cheese) is a typical teenager. More like a typical teenage girl. She has what appears to be the perfect life. Dying puts a whole new perspective on things though. Especially when you die from a broken heart. Literally *with actual correct usage of the word*. The thing is that life is never as it appears, and people can always seem to fake their way through a lot of things for a lot of people. Brie learns this… even if it was the hard way at times.

      Despite the whole death thing, the book was light, filled with humor that be found among many girls. When she dies, Brie watches her memorial service and funeral. She then finds herself in A Little Slice of Heaven, a.k.a. the best pizza on the West Coast. Inside the pizza shop is a boy named Patrick, gorgeous and perfectly annoying *but a bit pretty much perfect too*. I truly loved Patrick in the story. He continued to surprise me time and time again, and he really loved Brie. So much so that he was willing to sacrifice himself for her. That’s rare. I fell head over heels for him as I read. also, Brie’s best friends in life were also pretty awesome. Sadie is the only one that gets a lot of character development, but all of them got enough for me to want to hang out with them.

      For a debut, I found the story to be quite good, quirky, even if the ending was a bit weird. There are moments in the book where the writing is breathtakingly beautiful. I can see Ms. Rothenberg getting better and better!

      Low Points: The ending was kind of strange for me, but I saw a lot of people’s reviews that loved it. At times, Brie really drove me crazy, verging on annoying me. Sometimes that just happens for me when I read books whose main target audience is teenagers.

      High Points: The romance between Brie and Patrick is beautiful, missing that “lust” at first sight business. I love how the book takes perspective and just twists and then twists it again. It was an interesting way to show how perspective affects our lives. The book also shows a lot of relationships, with strengths and weaknesses both in family and friends. The insight into the grieving process was interesting too.

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      Grace Lo

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      Beautiful Story and Wonderful Execution

      The Catastrophic History of You and Me starts off with Brie’s narration of her life, and whatever led up to her death. And like the synopsis says, her boyfriend breaks her heart. Which made it literally split into perfect halves, therefore killing her. In order for her to move on, she has to go through the five stages of grief, or she’ll be stuck in the state of a Lost Soul.

      Firstly, I’d like to applaud Jess Rothenberg’s skill in plot twists. A character I believed to be someone to get the story turned out to be a major character. Some unexpected turns between Brie and her idea of Jacob. Patrick’s big secret and sacrifice. Her father’s betrayal. Though the story felt fairly cute and sweet in the beginning, the big guns were brought out later on in the story but didn’t distrupt the atmosphere all that much. It was only towards the end when I felt that the story got pushy and dark. Normally, I like dark stories, but this sort of dark didn’t mesh with the general bubbly atmosphere of the story and felt a little out of it. It didn’t have that special push I like to have in books.

      Brie, is a developing, dynamic character who you can clearly see grows, stretches, and morphs throughout the story. She’s at first confused and bewildered, then grows to be bitter and angry, before finally accepting her current state. It shows us Brie’s character at her very worst, showing the reader how human she is, and molds her into a beautiful, realistic teenage girl.

      Often in books the love interest occupies a lot of space in the pages of a book, Brie’s thoughts were mostly on her death, and what she should make of it. Patrick, though a major character, was not center stage of Brie’s mind. It wasn’t as if there was no romance – there was actually more romance than other books I generally like – but the romance was at a perfect level, still there in the back of your mind but not overshadowing what the book was trying to convey.

      I loved this book, and have much more praise I can give it, but I have a bone to pick with the pacing towards the end. I found this a very refreshing read, and would definitely recommend it to contemporary fans.

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      Nikki H

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      The Catastrophic History of You and Me by Jess Rothenberg

      Everything about this book was amazing. From cover to cover. Speaking of the cover, it was what initially drew me to the book. After reading the story, it fits perfectly and I love it even more.
      The actual story was fun and easy to read, even with a premise that could have been taken so seriously. I also loved that the chapters were titled from song lyrics that went along with the events that played out in the chapter. To go along with that, I saw on her website that she had a playlist to go along with the book, so I was able to read and listen to it and it was great. It made me connect with them even more. But what I loved the most was the fact the comical aura of Brie even though she was D&G. I laughed throughout this entire book.
      As far as the characters, they were all great assets to the story. Everyone that was in it came with a specific purpose. There were some that I felt so incredibly sorry for and others that I felt so happy with and others that I was sad about. My favorite character in the book though was not Brie, but Patrick. He was such a sweetie and he was there for Brie through everything. And he just seemed to complement Brie so well. From his constant teasing her to his seriousness about certain subjects.
      This book will leave you breathless. I certainly was. I found myself like oh yeah I know what’s going on like trying to guess only to find out that Rothenberg went and through a plot twist in the mix. It was an amazing story. Spoiler… Highlight to see it… (One thing that I would love to see though, is a story from Sadie’s POV. I just want to see how she was feeling when the rumors were flying about her and Jacob and how she handled it.)

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      Vi, Promotions Manager

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      A unique and cute story about true love, death, and fate

      I didn’t know what to expect going into this book. I give credit to Jess for creating a pretty unique story and a good set of characters. I loved Brie, she is funny, snarky, and every bit the typical teen who has to face a tragedy, without the annoying parts. Jess gave the reader just enough humor, romance, and grief to keep the story going steady and the reader entertained, I thoroughly enjoyed this one. One of my favorite aspects of the book was that each chapter title was a line from a song. Some I didn’t know, but many I remember and love. That definitely made me smile and I was eager to see what each chapter would be titled and they pretty much fit with how the story was going.

      I love that Jess keeps you in suspense and just when you think you figured out the secret or that you know what’s going on or what’s about to happen, Jess throws you for a loop and you’re floored! I love how Jess takes the idea of the afterlife and puts her own personal take on it, stuck at a familiar place – in this case, a pizza parlor – being able to touch objects and people, and diving back into the world via the Golden Gate bridge, although no one can see you, of course. I also loved how far Jess took the real-life condition, “Broken Heart syndrome” and turned it into something physical. The actual medical/scientific aspect of it plays an important part in the beginning and I enjoyed seeing that play out.

      Patrick and Brie’s relationship is very significant, but they didn’t have as much interaction as I would’ve liked, given how much they actually care for each other. You’re kind of just supposed to believe that their love is pure and transcendent, without as many key events to portray it. I also didn’t care for the ending because it felt like Jess simply threw a bunch of background and ideas at the reader, without giving much detail, which made it a bit confusing. I feel like she rushed the ending and it could’ve been so much better. After finishing it I was left wondering what the hell was going on and what exactly was all that spiritual, existential stuff Jess was trying to explain to the reader, but couldn’t really do right?! It didn’t really click for me.

      Besides all that, I really liked the book and all the stuff leading up to the end, even if the ending was a bit of a bust. I’d definitely keep this one on my bookshelf for light, fun read and for a debut author, it’s not bad at all.

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      Top 500 Reviewer

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      A Real Heart-breaker!

      This was a sweet, fun, heartbreaking story all wrapped into one. I felt a plethora of emotions along with Brie while reading this book: sadness, happiness, anger, frustration, sympathy, hope, and love. While the topics at hand were fairly serious, and at times sad, the author integrated just enough sarcasm and humor to keep the story from being too dark. While I was frustrated with Brie’s need for revenge, she was a very likable character that I was able to connect with. Patrick was the perfect mysterious “Lost Soul” (a.k.a swoon-worthy guy). I especially loved the dialogue between Patrick and Brie, as well as all the cheese themed nicknames he came up with for her.

      *(As a side note, Brie’s faithful Basset Hound Hamloaf, was my favorite character!)

      Something else that I LOVED about this book was that each chapter title was taken from a well known song. At the end of the ARC (I’m sure it will be in the finished copy too) was a list of all the songs and artists used as titles. This just added a fun element to the book.

      I was very impressed by the fact that the author was able to surprise me. I assumed this would be a predictable, yet enjoyable, read. There were, however, two different parts of the story that I didn’t see coming. This element of surprise is what transformed this from a good book to a fantastic one!

      This story provided me with a great romance, as well as some things to think about. It really causes you think about grief, revenge, consequences to your actions,the power of friendship, and the importance of family. I highly recommend this debut, and cannot wait to read other things from Jess Rothenburg in the future!

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      back to school rally detroit 2016


      "We Cant Rest Now, The Stakes Are Too High!"


      Back to School / Stay in School Program


      The Back to School Stay in School Family Day program was created in response to the alarming high school drop out rates. The program’s goals are to increase the number of skilled and literate African American youth graduating from high school by providing them with mentoring, tutoring, remedial assistance and incentives for maintaining regular attendance.

      At the annual event the Detroit Branch NAACP partners with Ms. Delores Bennett and host the annual family fun day at the Delores Bennett park in the heart of the north-end community. This event attracts thousands of participants each year. Students receive school supplies such as notebooks, backpacks, pens, and pencils to prepare them for a healthy school year. With food, music and entertainment participants always have a wonderful time.

      7 thoughts on “Back to School / Stay in School Program

      1. I represent a non-profit organization that would like to partner with the NAACP as well as Mrs. Delores Bennett to assist however we are needed at the Back to School/Stay in School Family Fun Day. I can be reached by email for a response and to render whatever information necessary to follow through.

        • Hello Entilina and thank you for contacting the Detroit Branch NAACP. Someone will be in contact with you soon regarding the Back to School Stay In School Program and we look forward to your continued participation and support. We encourage you to attend our General Membership Meetings every 4th Thursday of each Month, visit our website, or contact our office at 313-871-2087 for all monthly updates. Additionally, we invite you to join us for the 50th Anniversary of the Martin Luther King Jr., Freedom Walk. The event will be held June 22, 2013 and we will meet at the intersection of Warren  Forest at 9:00A.M. More information can be found at .

      2. When does this event take place

        • Hi Latasha,

          Thank you for contacting the Detroit Branch NAACP. Our Back to School Program will take place on August 30, 2013 at Delores Bennett Park. We invite you to join us from 10:00 A.M.-2:00 P.M. on that day.

          Thank You,

          Detroit Branch NAACP

      3. I met Mrs.Bennett in 1985 after just returning home to my mother from 3 long years of foster care. I was shy a little,and very protective of my siblings. Mrs.Bennett is truly a mother to all. One day she gave me a dollar and sent a group of us to the candy store that sat on the corner across from thee park….in that moment she showed me that I was welcomed to her park, not to worry about anything and that my siblings would be ok. She allowed me to be an 8 year old kid and little did she know the impact she had n my life that day and for many days to come. Thanks Mrs.Bennett for showing me LOVE..and you are still a big part of my life as well as my family even tho I’m 36 now, your’re amazing!!!!!!!

      4. We will be there!

      5. I’ve heard wonderful things about Mrs. Bennett, I wish there were more people who cared like she does. Hopefully, the energy and love will flow to other parts of the city.
        Thank God for the NAACP partnership and other organizations supporting this event, it will help families tremendously.


      Leave a Reply Cancel reply

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