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For the album by Willis Jackson, see Gatorade (album) .

The Gatorade Company, Inc.

The current Gatorade “G” logo, produced by TBWA\Chiat\Day . [1]
Product type Sports drink
nutrition bar
protein drink
Other sports nutrition products
Owner PepsiCo (owned by Quaker Oats Company and trademarked as Stokely-Van Camp)
Country United States
IntroducedSeptember 9, 1965; 52 years ago (1965-09-09) [2]
Markets80 countries including the United States, Canada, Brazil, France, Germany, United Kingdom and Australia

The Gatorade Company, Inc. is an American manufacturer of sports-themed beverage and food products, built around its signature line of sports drinks . Gatorade is currently manufactured by PepsiCo and is distributed in over 80 countries. [3] The beverage was first developed in 1965 by a team of researchers led by Dr. Robert Cade or John White. It was originally made for the Gators at the University of Florida to replenish the carbohydrates that the school’s student-athletes burned and the combination of water and electrolytes that they lost in sweat during rigorous sport activities.

Originally produced and marketed by Stokely-Van Camp , the Gatorade brand was purchased by the Quaker Oats Company in 1988, which, in turn, was bought by PepsiCo in 2000. [4] As of 2010, Gatorade is PepsiCo’s 4th-largest brand , on the basis of worldwide annual retail sales. [5] It competes with Coca-Cola’s Powerade and Vitaminwater brands worldwide, and with Lucozade in the United Kingdom . Within the United States, Gatorade accounts for approximately 75% of market share in the sports drink category. [6]


  • 1 History
  • 2 Products
    • 2.1 Re-branding
  • 3 Composition and health concerns
  • 4 Research and development
  • 5 Advertising and publicity
  • 6 The Gatorade shower
  • 7 Gatorade and oral rehydration
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

History[ edit ]

University of Florida football player Chip Hinton testing Gatorade in 1965, pictured next to the leader of its team of inventors, Robert Cade .

Gatorade was created in 1965 by a team of scientists at the University of Florida College of Medicine , including Robert Cade , Dana Shires , Harry James Free, and Alejandro de Quesada. [7] Following a request from Florida Gators football head coach Ray Graves , Gatorade was created to help athletes by acting as a replacement for body fluids lost during physical exertion. The earliest versions of the beverage consisted of a mixture of water, sodium , sugar , potassium , phosphate , and lemon juice. [8] Ten players on the University of Florida football team tested the first version of Gatorade during practices and games in 1965, and the tests were deemed successful. On the other hand, star quarterback Steve Spurrier said, “I don’t have any answer for whether the Gatorade helped us be a better second-half team or not. . . . We drank it, but whether it helped us in the second half, who knows?” [9] Nonetheless, the football team credited Gatorade as having contributed to their first Orange Bowl win over the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets in 1967, at which point the drink gained traction within the athletic community. Yellow Jackets coach Bobby Dodd , when asked why his team lost, replied: “We didn’t have Gatorade. That made the difference.” [10]

The University of Florida researchers initially considered naming their product “Gator-Aid”. They settled on the name Gatorade, however, since the researchers wanted to create a commercial product, not a scientifically-validated one. Darren Rovell notes his history of Gatorade, First in Thirst, “the doctors realized that they probably shouldn’t use the ‘Aid’ suffix, since that would mean that if the drink were ever marketed, they would have to prove that it had a clear medicinal use and perform clinical tests on thousands of people.” [11] Gatorade co-inventor Dana Shires explained, “We were told that you couldn’t use that because the Food and Drug Administration prohibited that. That would classify it as something other than a cola or soft drink, so we changed it to ade.” [12]

For example, some were skeptical that the product’s effect was anything more than a placebo effect. Cade mentioned, “If you told a football player that you were giving him Demerol to relieve pain and you gave him a placebo instead, there’s about a 30% chance that the placebo will relieve the pain as much as taking Demerol would have.” [13]

Shortly after the 1969 Orange Bowl, Robert Cade entered into an agreement providing Stokely-Van Camp, Inc. (S-VC), a canned-food packaging company, with the U.S. rights to production and sale of Gatorade as a commercial product. [8] In the same year, a licensing arrangement made Gatorade the official sports drink of the National Football League (NFL), representing the first in a history of professional sports sponsorship for the Gatorade brand. A year after its commercial introduction, S-VC tested multiple variations of the original Gatorade recipe, finally settling on more palatable variants in lemon-lime and orange flavors. This reformulation also removed the sweetener cyclamate —which was banned by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1969 – replacing it with additional fructose . [14] In the early 1970s, legal questions arose regarding whether or not the researchers who invented Gatorade were entitled to ownership of its royalties, since they had been working under a research grant from the federal government which provided financial stipends. [8] The University of Florida also claimed partial rights of ownership, which was brought to resolution in 1973 in the form of a settlement awarding the university with a 20% share of Gatorade royalties . [15] As of 2009, the university had received more than $150 million from its share, and was receiving approximately $12 million per year. [16]

Prior version of the Gatorade logo, in use (with minor variations) from 1973 to 2009. This version of the logo is still in use in the United Kingdom , and in Ireland .

The Quaker Oats Company purchased S-VC and Gatorade in 1983 for $220 million, following a bidding war with rival Pillsbury . In its first two decades of production, Gatorade was primarily sold and distributed within the United States. Beginning in the 1980s, the company expanded distribution of Gatorade, venturing into Canada in 1984, regions of Asia in 1987, South America and parts of Europe in 1988, and Australia in 1993. In 1990, Gatorade introduced Gatorade Light, a lower-calorie version sweetened with saccharin . [17] International expansion came at the cost of $20 million in 1996 alone; however the resulting efforts produced worldwide sales of $283 million in more than 45 countries during the same year. [18] In 1997, distribution of Gatorade in an additional 10 countries prompted an 18.7% growth in annual sales. [19]

In 2001, the multinational food and beverage company PepsiCo acquired Gatorade’s parent company, the Quaker Oats Company, for $13 billion in order to add Gatorade to its portfolio of brands. PepsiCo had also recently developed All Sport , which it divested of shortly following the Quaker acquisition to satisfy antitrust regulations. Worldwide development of Gatorade continued into the 2000s, including expansion into India in 2004, and the United Kingdom and Ireland in 2008. [19] As of 2010, Gatorade products were made available for sale in more than 80 countries. [3] As the number-one sports drink by annual retail sales in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Italy, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia and the Philippines, Gatorade is also among the leading sports drink brands in Korea and Australia. [20]

As distribution of Gatorade expanded outside of the U.S., localized flavors were introduced to conform to regional tastes and cultural preferences, among other factors. For example, Blueberry is available in Colombia , and in Brazil , a Pineapple flavor of Gatorade is sold. In Australia,[ citation needed ] flavors include Antarctic Freeze and Wild Water Rush. Some flavors that have been discontinued in the U.S., such as Alpine Snow and Starfruit, have since been made available in other countries. [19]

In 2011, Gatorade was re-introduced to New Zealand by Bluebird Foods , a PepsiCo subsidiary in New Zealand. The product is made in Australia by Schweppes Australia, and imported to New Zealand and distributed along with Bluebird potato chips.

Products[ edit ]

Lemon-lime Gatorade in a glass bottle, circa 1970s

In its early years, the Gatorade brand consisted of a single product line—Gatorade Thirst Quencher—which was produced in liquid and powder form under two flavor variants: Orange and Lemon Lime. [21] These remained as the only two flavor options for nearly 20 years, until the addition of the fruit punch flavor in 1983. [22] In 1988 a Citrus Cooler flavor was introduced. The rise to popularity of this flavor was largely result of Michael Jordan, who, at the height of his NBA career in the early 1990s, stated that it was his favorite flavor. This claim appeared on the packaging beginning in 1991, as part of a 10-year endorsement deal. [23] [24] The Citrus Cooler flavor was reportedly discontinued at some point in the 1990s; [25] however as of 2011 it is listed as being a current product in the U.S. [26] In the late 1970s and early 1980s, as well as the late 1990s to early 2000s, a Gatorade brand of chewing gum called Gator Gum was produced. The product, manufactured by Fleer Corporation , was available in both of Gatorade’s original flavors (lemon-lime and orange). In the late 1970s, Stokely-Van Camp (owner of Gatorade before 1983) negotiated a long-term licensing deal with Swell and Vicks to market Gator Gum. The gum was discontinued in 1989 after the contract expired. [18] [19]

It was not until the mid and late 1990s that Gatorade beverages became available in a broader range of flavor variations. Among these initial flavor extensions were Watermelon, introduced in 1995, and Cherry Rush, Strawberry Kiwi, and Mandarina flavors, added in 1996. [18] [19] :171 [27] In January 1997 Gatorade launched a new sub-line called Gatorade Frost with the intent of broadening the brand’s appeal beyond traditional team competitive sports. Three initial flavors under the Frost product line were introduced at this time: Alpine Snow, Glacier Freeze, and Whitewater Splash. [28] Aimed at what the company described as the ‘active thirst’ category—a market 10 times the size of the sports drink segment—Gatorade Frost proved to be successful, far surpassing the company’s initial expectations. Flavors in the Frost line were the first from Gatorade to divert from fruit names; it was described as consisting of “light-tasting fruit-flavor blends”. [18]

Gatorade revealed the Gatorade Energy Bar in 2001. This bar was Gatorade’s first foray into solid foods and was introduced to compete with PowerBar and Clif Bar . Gatorade Energy Bars contained a large proportion of protein, in addition to carbohydrates. The bar was primarily made up of puffed grains and corn syrup, common components of other energy bars. [19] In 2001, Gatorade introduced the Gatorade Performance Series, a special line of sports nutrition products. These products include Gatorade Carbohydrate Energy Drink, Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake, the Gatorade Nutrition Shake, and the Gatorade Nutrition Bar. The Endurance Formula, introduced in 2004, contained twice the sodium and three times the potassium of the typical Gatorade formula as well as chloride , magnesium and calcium , to better replace what athletes lose while training and competing. [29]

Introduced as Gatorade Ice in 2002, this flavor was re-labeled as Gatorade Rain in 2006 and No Excuses in 2009.

Introduced in 2002, Gatorade Ice was marketed as a lighter flavored Gatorade and came in Strawberry, Lime, Orange, and Watermelon. All of these flavors were colorless and transparent . Ice was re-branded in 2006 as Gatorade Rain and the flavor selections altered. In late 2007, a low-calorie line of Gatorade drinks, named G2, was released. [30] G2 was meant for athletes off the field and the yoga crowd. [4] As of 2015 [update] , G2 has been produced in eight flavors: Orange, Fruit Punch, Grape, Lemon-Lime, Tropical blend, Blueberry-Pomegranate, Raspberry Melon, and Glacier Freeze. SymphonyIRI Group named G2 the “top new food product of 2008”, noting that the product generated retail sales of $159.1 million in its first full year of production. [31]

Gatorade Tiger was a Gatorade Thirst Quencher sports drink formed as the result of a sponsorship arrangement with Tiger Woods . Debuting in March 2008, Gatorade Tiger was available in Red Drive (cherry), Cool Fusion (lemon-lime), and Quiet Storm (grape). Gatorade Tiger contained 25% more electrolytes than Gatorade Thirst Quencher. [32] As part of the 2009 rebranding, Gatorade Tiger was re-labeled as Focus. It was reformulated, adding the amino acid theanine , which is naturally found in many forms of tea , improving mental focus. Focus contained about 25 mg per 8 US fluid ounces (240 ml) serving or 50 mg per 16.9 US fluid ounces (500 ml) bottle. On 25 November 2009, it was reported by Beverage Digest , and later confirmed by PepsiCo, that they had made a decision, several months before November 2009, to discontinue some products to make room for the Prime and Recover products as part of a then-upcoming G Series re-branding. [33] In 2015, the Gatorade Energy gummies made their debut along with the Gatorade energy bar.

Re-branding[ edit ]

G Series introduced in 2010, from left to right:

Prime 01 (pre-game fuel)
Perform 02: Gatorade Thirst Quencher (original Gatorade)
Perform 02: G2 low-calorie
Recover 03 (post-game protein)

In 2010, Gatorade re-branded a number of its products. [34] Original Gatorade was initially re-labeled as Gatorade G. Gatorade Rain was re-labeled as No Excuses. Gatorade AM was re-labeled Shine On; Gatorade X-Factor was relabeled as Be Tough; and Gatorade Fierce was relabeled Bring It. However these names were short-lived, as a 2% decline in market share in 2009 led to a broader repositioning of the entire line in 2010. [35] [36] Beginning in February 2010, the Gatorade product portfolio was re-positioned around what the company refers to as the G Series, categorizing varieties of its products into three main segments: before, during, and after athletic events. [37]

  • The Prime 01 product line consists of a pre-game fuel in a gel consistency, positioned for consumption prior to athletic activity. [3]
  • Traditional Gatorade products such as Gatorade Thirst Quencher (Original Gatorade), G2, and Gatorade Powder are categorized under the Perform 02 classification, representing their intention for consumption during periods of physical exertion. [37]
  • Recover 03 refers to a post-workout protein and carbohydrate drink, formulated with the consistency of a sports drink. The composition of this beverage reflects its intention to provide both hydration and muscle recovery after exercise. [3]

G Series Pro, a brand extension initially developed for professional athletes, began to be sold in GNC and Dick’s Sporting Goods stores in the U.S. in 2010 after first being available only in professional locker rooms and specialized training facilities. [38] Also in 2010, Gatorade introduced the G Natural Gatorade line which is made with “natural flavors and ingredients”, specifically sweetened with Stevia and sold in Whole Foods grocery stores within the United States. G Natural was released in two flavors: G Orange Citrus and G2 Berry. [39] The G Series began to replace prior iterations of Gatorade product lines in the U.S. (the brand’s highest volume market) in 2010, [40] and Canada in 2011. [41] While Gatorade products have historically been developed for athletes engaging in competitive sporting events, a separate line of products formulated for consumption before, during and after personal fitness exercise was introduced in the U.S. in 2011. [42] Labeled under the name G Series FIT, this product line consists of pre-workout fruit-and-nut bites, lightly flavored electrolyte replacement drinks, as well as post-workout protein recovery smoothies. [43] [44]

Composition and health concerns[ edit ]

Original Gatorade Thirst Quencher
Nutritional value per 20 US fluid ounces (590 ml)
Energy 50 kcal (210 kJ)
Sugars 10
Dietary fiber 0
Minerals Quantity


30 mg


5 mg

  • Units
  • μg = micrograms  • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Gatorade Perform 02
Nutritional value per 12 US fluid ounces (350 ml)
Energy 80 kcal (330 kJ)
Sugars 21
Dietary fiber 0
Minerals Quantity


45 mg


150 mg

  • Units
  • μg = micrograms  • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

The original Gatorade is based on oral rehydration therapy , a mixture of salt, sugar, and water, with the citrus-based flavoring and food coloring added. The composition of individual Gatorade products varies depending upon the product in question, as well as the country in which it is sold. Gatorade Thirst Quencher contains water, sucrose (table sugar), dextrose , citric acid , natural flavor, sodium chloride (table salt), sodium citrate , monopotassium phosphate , and flavoring/coloring ingredients. Some Gatorade flavor variations used to contain brominated vegetable oil as a stabilizer. [45] Brominated vegetable oil was discontinued in 2013, and has been replaced with sucrose acetate isobutyrate. [46] An 8 US fluid ounces (240 ml) serving of Gatorade Perform 02 (Gatorade Thirst Quencher) contains 50 calories, 14 grams of carbohydrates, 110 mg sodium and 30 mg potassium. [47]

Gatorade Thirst Quencher is sweetened using a sucrose – dextrose mix. For a period of time in the 1990s and early 2000s, high fructose corn syrup was used to sweeten Gatorade distributed in North America, but as of 2011, the drink once again sweetened with a sucrose-dextrose combination, which the company describes as being “preferred by consumers”. G2 and G2 Natural, labeled as being “lower calorie” variants, are sweetened in part with PureVia , an extract of the Stevia plant. [48]

The presence of calories, sugar and sodium in Gatorade products has drawn attention from public school constituents, who have raised question over whether the sale of Gatorade beverages should be permitted in such schools. In 2010, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger sponsored a bill ( SB 1295 ) which proposed a ban on the sale of sports drinks in California schools. In 2015, the University of California, San Francisco began to phase out the sale of sodas, sports drinks and energy drinks in its cafeterias, vending machines , and campus catering and retail locations, and began to “sell only zero-calorie beverages or non-sweetened drinks with nutritional value, such as milk and 100% juice”. [49]

There are 34 g of sugar in one 20 oz bottle of regular Gatorade. The maximum amount of sugars a person should eat in a day is 25 grams for women and 37.5 grams for men. According to the American Heart Association , the recommended maximum amount of sugar for women is about 6 teaspoons and about 9 teaspoons for men. [50] Family Education says the AHA states that children should consume even less sugar, no more than only about 3 to 4 teaspoons each day. [51]

In 2012, a study on nearly 11,000 teens reported that “teens put on even more weight if they drank a bottle of sports drink each day, averaging 3.5 pounds for every sports drink consumed per day”. The researchers concluded, “We need to educate parents and clinicians about what constitutes a sugary drink…. Sports drinks are promoted by professional athletes as a healthy drink, but they really don’t need to be used by kids unless they are continually exercising for long periods or they’re in hot climates.” [52]

The USDA states that the average American will consume 160 pounds of sugar each year; almost a half-pound of sugar per day. [53] One of the most prevalent ways that sugar is consumed is through drinks. Most people do not notice the amount of sugar that one given drink can have.

In January 2013, the Gatorade manufacturer (PepsiCo) agreed to remove brominated vegetable oil from its Gatorade products in the USA amidst health concerns. [54]
The composition of Gatorade in Europe, Japan and India remains unaffected as BVO was outlawed there 23 years earlier.

Research and development[ edit ]

Gatorade Sports Science Institute.jpg

Gatorade’s inventors went on to develop new sports drinks. Gatorade’s owners sued to acquire rights to these new products, but they never made them available publicly. First, Shires and Cade developed Go!, a drink that, unlike Gatorade, contained protein to stimulate muscular recovery. Stokley-Van Camp paid “a fee to have the exclusive rights for some period of time, but they never did develop it”. [55]

In 1989, Dr. Cade created a new sports drink that he claimed was more effective than Gatorade. The new product was called TQ2, shorthand for Thirst Quencher 2. The patent application read:

“The invention described here is a novel fluid composition which surprisingly and advantageously maintains blood volume at levels well above those observed in the absence of fluids or even with Gatorade.” [56]

In an experiment with cyclists, Cade found that TQ2 allowed athletes to endure for 30% longer than Gatorade. [57]

Cade pitched the TQ2 product to Pepsi and other beverage companies. Meanwhile, Gatorade’s owner Quaker sued Cade. After years of legal proceedings, Cade was forced to sell TQ2 to Quaker in 1993. Quaker “bagged” TQ2, never releasing it to the public. [58] Gatorade claimed that its research found that TQ2 was not an improvement over the original Gatorade formula. Cade, on the other hand, continued to stand by his product. He accused Quaker and Gatorade of stifling the publication of the research behind TQ2. [59]

The Gatorade Sports Science Institute (GSSI), a research facility operated in Barrington, Illinois , has been featured in a number of the company’s commercials. [60] Established in 1985, [3] this organization consists of scientists studying the correlation and effects of exercise, environmental variables, and nutrition on the human body. According to Darren Rovell , “GSSI was created at a time when there was a lot of scientific controversy, since there wasn’t much public evidence that Gatorade actually worked…GSSI was also created to be part of Gatorade’s powerful marketing arm.” [61]

It regularly conducts testing and research on how hydration and nutrition affect athletic performance. [60] Professional athletes such as Eli Manning [62] as well as collegiate and amateur athletes have been involved in fitness testing programs at the GSSI, which in part have led to innovations in new Gatorade formula variations and product lines. [63]

In 2001, the GSSI observed that professional race car drivers were not maintaining adequate levels of hydration during races, attributable to the nature of drivers enduring multiple-hour races in high temperatures. As a result, it developed a product called the “Gatorade In-Car Drinking System”, which has since been implemented in the vehicles of many professional race car drivers. [64]

In addition to the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Gatorade sponsors external health and fitness research. In 1992, Gatorade paid the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) $250,000. A year later, Gatorade and the American College of Sports Medicine held a roundtable meeting on “exercise and fluid replacement”. [65] The ACSM published the meeting’s results in 1996, advising athletes to drink “at a rate sufficient to replace all the water lost through sweating” or “the maximal amount that can be tolerated”. [66] Gatorade continues to sponsor the American College of Sports Medicine, though the exact amount it pays is not public. [67]

Advertising and publicity[ edit ]

Early Gatorade advertisements claimed that it moved through the body 12 times faster than water. Research found that this was not true – Gatorade moves through the body at the same speed as water. Gatorade removed the claim from its advertisements. [68] [ Gatorade advertisements have claimed] that athletes need to consume at least “40 oz. per hour or your performance could suffer”. [69] South African exercise physiologist Dr. Tim Noakes found that Cynthia Lucero died from exercise-associated hyponatremic encephalopathy drinking Gatorade at “the rate recommended by the advertisements”. [70]

Gatorade is the official sports drink of the AFL , NFL , MLB , NBA , WNBA , USA Basketball , NHL , Association of Volleyball Professionals , Indian Super League , High School Sports Teams, NASCAR , and other professional and collegiate athletic organizations, [3] providing supplies of the drinks to sponsored teams in some cases. Distribution was extended to include the U.K. in 2008, coinciding with an agreement designating Gatorade as the official sports drink of Chelsea F.C. [71] [72] Gatorade’s 1991 “Be Like Mike” ads featured Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls , a North American basketball team which had just won its first National Basketball Association championship at the time. The ads began airing in August 1991 and “Be Like Mike” became a household phrase in the United States. [73] In 2015, new versions of the ads were produced to commemorate the brand’s 50th anniversary. In more recent years, the Gatorade brand has continued to employ professional sports athletes in the promotion of its products. Primary endorsers in the 2000s have included Major League Baseball player Derek Jeter of the New York Yankees , National Hockey League player Sidney Crosby of the Pittsburgh Penguins , National Basketball Association player Dwyane Wade of the Miami Heat and Chicago Bulls , PGA Tour golfer Tiger Woods , and National Football League quarterback Peyton Manning of the Indianapolis Colts and Denver Broncos . [74] In April 2014 it was announced that Gatorade would become an official supplier to Formula 1 team Sahara Force India . [75]

Gatorade also hosts a variety of awards given to high school athletes who excel in their respective sports. One prominent award given is the Gatorade National Football Player of the Year. [76]

The Gatorade shower[ edit ]

Gatorade has been the subject of substantial media attention and reference in popular culture situations, most of which are in relation to team or individual athletic sports. The most notable and ongoing presence of Gatorade in popular culture is the Gatorade shower , originally called the “Gatorade Dunk”, where players from a victorious team pick up the Gatorade cooler, sneak up behind the head coach, and pour the contents of the cooler (generally Gatorade and ice) over his head at the end of an American football game. This tradition was popularized in the mid-1980s when Harry Carson and Jim Burt , of the New York Giants , doused head coach Bill Parcells during the 1985 season. Burt’s teammates picked up on this practice and popularized it during the team’s championship season of 1986–87. The tradition has since become a recurring tradition across other team sports, including Canadian Football . [77]

Gatorade and oral rehydration[ edit ]

In the aftermath of the 1994 Rwandan genocide , aid agencies were struggling to save the lives of thousands of Rwandan refugees dying of dehydration due to cholera in camps in eastern Zaire . [78] The aid agency AmeriCares was heavily criticized for choosing to provide Gatorade as a form of oral rehydration solution . [79] [80] [81] The New York Times stated:

But while Gatorade might be good for athletes, it is not good for cholera, said Dr. Michael Toole, an epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control . Gatorade does not have all the essential ingredients that an I.V. has, and people who were given it might have taken more appropriate solutions, Dr. Toole said. [82]

AmeriCares’ president responded: “We stand by our decision to ship Gatorade to Rwandan refugees. In the absence of potable water , Gatorade, with its electrolytes and water, saved countless lives in a true triage situation.” [83]

Two studies have suggested that Gatorade is at least as effective in treating dehydration as oral rehydration salts for adults [84] or Pedialyte for children between the ages of 5 and 12. [85] In both studies, however, potassium deficiency ( hypokalemia ) was more common in patients receiving Gatorade.

References[ edit ]

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  33. ^ “Gatorade drops Tiger Woods sponsorship” . BBC News. December 9, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2009. 
  34. ^ “Gatorade FAQ” . Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  35. ^ Picchi, Aimee (May 6, 2010). “Gatorade’s Rebranding: So Confusing It Requires an Ad to Explain It” . Daily Finance. Retrieved January 24, 2011. 
  36. ^ McWilliams, Jeremiah (March 23, 2010). “PepsiCo revamps ‘formidable’ Gatorade franchise after rocky 2009” . The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved December 3, 2010. 
  37. ^ a b Spector, Bennett (February 1, 2010). “Gatorade Conquers Hydration: Debuting ‘G Series’ Technology at Super Bowl XLIV” . Bleacher Report. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  38. ^ Phillips, Aron (April 15, 2010). “Gatorade G Series Pro Launches” . Dime Magazine. Retrieved January 24, 2011. 
  39. ^ “New Gatorade is not for couch potatoes” . Reuters. March 24, 2010. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2011. 
  40. ^ Buss, Dale (March 24, 2010). “Gatorade Overhauls Brand Architecture With G Series Line” . Brand Channel. Archived from the original on September 6, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2011. 
  41. ^ “Gatorade announces G Series launch in Canada” . Canadian Business. August 12, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2010. [ permanent dead link ]
  42. ^ Zmuda, Natalie (May 2, 2011). “Gatorade Introduces G Series Fit; but Can Consumers Keep All Its Products Straight?” . Advertising Age. Retrieved July 28, 2011. 
  43. ^ “Gatorade Launches Campaign for G Series Fit Targeted at Fitness Athletes” . SportsBusiness Journal. May 2, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2011. 
  44. ^ “PepsiCo: Impact of Gatorade G Series Fit on Stock” . The Street. December 20, 2010. Retrieved July 28, 2011. 
  45. ^ “Frequently Asked Questions” . Gatorade. January 5, 2005. Retrieved May 28, 2007. 
  46. ^ “Gatorade to remove controversial ingredient” . NY Daily News. Retrieved 2015-10-16. 
  47. ^ “Gatorade Ingredients and Nutrition Content” . 
  48. ^ “Frequently Asked Questions” . Gatorade. January 1, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  49. ^ Kristen Bole, UCSF Launches Healthy Beverage Initiative: Health Sciences Campus Will Focus Sales on Zero-Calorie and Nutritious Drinks (press release), University of California, San Francisco (May 29, 2015).
  50. ^ “Heart-Encyclopedia – sugar%20intake” . Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  51. ^ “AHA Guidelines and Recommended Sugar Intake for Kids –” . Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  52. ^ Zimmerman, Ron. “Sports drinks, not just sodas, drive up weight in teens” . Medscape. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  53. ^ “Not So Sweet – The Average American Consumes 150-170 Pounds Of Sugar Each Year – Bamboo Core Fitness” . Bamboo Core Fitness. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  54. ^ Eng, Monica (January 29, 2013). “Gatorade to drop BVO after consumer complaints” . Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 
  55. ^ Shires, Dana. “Dana Leroy Shires, Jr” . University of Florida Digital Collection. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  56. ^ Rovell, Darren (September 2, 2005). First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat Into a Cultural Phenomenon . AMACOM. p. 191. ISBN   0814410952 . 
  57. ^ Lloyd, Barbara (1990-12-24). “Gatorade Challenged” . The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  58. ^ Shires, Dana. “Dana Leroy Shires Jr” . University of Florida Digital Collections. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  59. ^ Rovell, Darren (September 2, 2005). First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat Into a Cultural Phenomenon . AMACOM. p. 194. ISBN   0814410952 . 
  60. ^ a b Gatorade Sports Science Institute Archived July 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine .
  61. ^ Rovell, Darren (September 2, 2005). First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat Into a Cultural Phenomenon . AMACOM. p. 195. ISBN   0814410952 . 
  62. ^ “Eli Manning On Good Day NY” . My Fox New York. February 4, 2010. Retrieved December 2, 2010. [ dead link ]
  63. ^ Konecky, Chad (July 19, 2006). “Sports drinks like Gatorade hydrate better than water” . Sports Illustrated. Retrieved December 2, 2010. 
  64. ^ Circelli, Deborah (July 2, 2010). “Race drivers struggle to stay cool” . The Daytona Beach News-Journal. Archived from the original on November 11, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  65. ^ Thring, Oliver. “Do sports drinks and hydration theory hold any water?” . The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  66. ^ Convertino, VA (1996). “American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement”. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 28: i–vii. PMID   9303999 . 
  67. ^ American College of Sports Medicine. “About ACSM Partners and Sponsors” . American College of Sports Medicine. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  68. ^ Rovell, Darren (September 2, 2005). First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat Into a Cultural Phenomenon. AMACOM. pp. 155–156. ISBN   0814410952 . 
  69. ^
  70. ^ Noakes, Timothy (May 1, 2012). Waterlogged: The Serious Problem of Overhydration in Endurance Sports. Human Kinetics. p. 8. ISBN   145042497X . 
  71. ^ Fraser, Adam (September 1, 2009). “Gatorade to sponsor Leaders in Performance” . SportsPro . Retrieved January 21, 2011. 
  72. ^ Bowser, Jacquie (October 2, 2007). “Gatorade signs sponsorship deal with Chelsea FC” . Brand Republic. Retrieved January 21, 2011. 
  73. ^ A more detailed account of its creation appears in Rovell, Darren (2006). First in thirst: how Gatorade turned the science of sweat into a cultural phenomenon. New York: American Management Association. OCLC   60393271 . 
  74. ^ Howard, Theresa (November 29, 2007). “Gatorade ready to pump up marketing efforts” . USA Today. Retrieved December 2, 2010. 
  75. ^ “Gatorade Joins Sahara Force India Sponsors” . SportsPro . 9 April 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  76. ^ “U.S. Army All-American Jacob Eason is making his case for Gatorade Player of the Year” . USA Today High School Sports. Retrieved 2015-10-16. 
  77. ^ Trex, Ethan (January 7, 2010). “Who invented the Gatorade shower?” . CNN. Retrieved January 24, 2011. 
  78. ^ Barbara Crossette, “The World; Reason Left In the Dust As Refugees Pick Routes”, The New York Times, July 24, 1994.
  79. ^ Kevin M. Cahill, editor. Basics of International Humanitarian Missions. Fordham Univ Press, 2003; ISBN   9780823222438 ; p. 230.
  80. ^ David Rieff, A Bed for the Night: Humanitarianism in Crisis, Simon & Schuster; September 30, 2003; ISBN   978-0743252119 ; p. 183.
  81. ^ Upendri Gunasekera, “The Perils of Philanthropy” Archived October 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine .
  82. ^ Edward Bonner, “The World: Post-Mortem for Charities; Compassion Wasn’t Enough in Rwanda”, The New York Times, December 18, 1994.
  83. ^ Steven M. Johnson, “AmeriCares Relief Reached Rwanda First”, The New York Times, Dec 24, 1994.
  84. ^ Rao, SS; Summers, RW; Rao, GR; Ramana, S; Devi, U; Zimmerman, B; Pratap, BC. “Oral rehydration for viral gastroenteritis in adults: a randomized, controlled trial of 3 solutions”. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 30: 433–9. doi : 10.1177/0148607106030005433 . PMID   16931613 . 
  85. ^ “Pedialyte, Gatorade Equally Effective in Alleviating Effects of Viral Gastroenteritis”, Newswise. 10/25/2005.

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      not going to college because of cost

      College Factual for Students

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      College Factual for Students

      The Opportunity Cost of Going to College


      Ryan Tetzlaff

      We all know attending college isn’t cheap. You’ve got your annual tuition, books, room and board, food, clothing, transportation and any number of other things associated with attending college.

      We make an investment in college expenses because we believe it will pay off at some point in the future. However, have you stopped to think about what opportunities we’ve given up in order to go to college?

      Opportunity Cost

      Opportunity cost refers to the loss of potential gain from you choosing one option from a number of alternate options. For every choice you make, there is potential benefit you lost out on by choosing that option.

      For example, if your friend calls and asks you to go out to a movie, you have to decide if you go or stay home and watch TV instead. If you decide to go out to the movie, the opportunity cost is the money you spend on the movie and the time you could have spent watching TV.

      If you decide to stay home and watch TV, you have saved yourself $12-15, but you have lost the opportunity of a potentially fun experience shared with a friend.

      It may seem like a no-brainer to you to choose one option over the other. Maybe you really need to save money because you are totally broke. On the other hand, maybe it’s a movie you’ve been dying to see. But no matter if the decision seems obvious to you, you always give up something every time you choose one thing over another.

      Applying Opportunity Cost to College

      Now that you have a brief understanding of opportunity cost, how can this be applied to your decision to attend college? In the grand scheme of things, you can choose to either attend college or… not.

      If you choose not to attend college, one likely scenario would be you picking up a job. Say you get a job out of high school for $35k per year. After four years you’ve earned about $140k (without any increases in wage or bonuses).

      What happens if you go to school? Let’s assume your yearly tuition and expenses is $30k and you choose to put your head down and graduate within four years. Let’s say you choose to stay completely focused on school and do not work while in college.

      After four years you are out $120k right? Well… yes, but this is where opportunity cost comes in. Because you chose to go to college instead of working, your opportunity cost is actually the sum of your college expenses plus the money you could have earned had you chosen not to work. Your opportunity cost to attend college is $260k.

      So, am I better off working instead of going to college?

      It seems like based on the above scenario, a high school graduate with a decent job will be well ahead of you financially by the time you graduate college. So does that mean you shouldn’t attend?  

      No, of course not. Not everyone has the skills or desire to obtain a high-paying job out of high school. But, at the same time, not everyone has the skills and desire to submit themselves to four years of study right after they get their high school diploma.

      The good news is that people who graduate with a degree typically have a higher starting and long term career salaries over someone without a degree.

      What you need to evaluate is how long it will take you to catch up with the person who didn’t attend college and what you think your long term earning potential will be. Maybe you’ll start in the low $30k range, but have earning potential in the high $70s.

      The person not attending college starts out ahead because they don’t have debt, but their earning potential may start to wane by their mid-career.

      To get a better understanding of which colleges offer the most return on investment, be sure to visit the Outcomes Tab in the any college profile on College Factual. You can see, for example, that a graduate from Harvey Mudd College will catch up to an average high school grad within 11 years.

      Break Even In 3.3 Years After Graduation At Harvey Mudd College by College Factual

      Keep exploring your college options, think about what you want to do career-wise and determine what makes the most sense for you. 

      Get Started With Your Free College Factual Account

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      Find out how to choose a college, major and future career in a way that ‘s easy and fun! College Factual provides college matching tools and tips to help you graduate from a school you love without tons of debt holding you back.

      Register at College Factual for help choosing your best-fit college and major.

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      how to get good marks in chemistry cbse 12

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      Preparation Tips

      How To Study Chemistry Class 12 CBSE – Preparation Tips


      CBSE Class 12 Science Chemistry

      What is Chemistry?

      Chemistry is the field of science concerned with the structure, properties and composition of particle/matter, as well as the changes that a particle/matter undergoes during chemical reactions.

      Application Forms Now Available

      Some important topics taught in Chemistry in class 12 are:

      • P-block elements
      • D and F block elements
      • Electrochemistry
      • Solid States
      • Chemical Kinetics
      • Surface Chemistry

      Marks wise important topics

      • P-block elements – 8 marks
      • Aldehydes, Ketons and Carboxylic Acids – 6 marks
      • Solutions, Electrochemistry and Chemical Kinetics each for 5 marks
      • D and F block elements for 5 marks, while the chapter Haloalkanes and Haloarenes is worth 4 marks.

      Tips for Preparation

      • If you feel you are not good at Chemistry, start early. Start reading your NCERT book as soon as possible.
      • Do not try to rush and finish the chapters. You should understand that reading a book that deals with scientific concepts, theory and reactions is different from a novel or a comic.
      • Follow up your NCERT concepts with a reference book to gain a deeper understanding of the topic.
      • Start attending classes and laboratory lectures. Perform each and every laboratory experiment. For example, you might not remember Le Chatelier’s principle of equilibrium for reversible reactions, but if you perform the experiment, and see things happen, chances are, you will remember it for a longer duration.
      • Try and grasp the concepts and always ask questions. Make a list of unanswered questions and ask discuss them with a teacher or a peer.
      • Do not ignore numerical problems. Most of the times, the problems are direct application of the formulae in use, and, at times are mixed with your understanding of a topic. The numerical problems, if mastered are a good way to score marks.
      • After you finish your syllabus, revise as many times as possible.
      • When you finish, do take the sample papers provided by CBSE in a timed environment.
      • Also, have a look at the answers and the marking scheme provided, as no other source can give you a better judgment than the one provided by CBSE.

      Tips for scoring good marks

      • During the exam, try to write your descriptive answers in points and give pictorial or graphical illustrations wherever possible.  It enhances visibility
      • Scan the paper before answering
      • For long answer type questions, before starting, frame a skeleton of the answer in the margin.
      • Do remember the S.I units of all entities.
      • Be crisp and to the point in very short questions

      Recommended NCERT Books

      • NCERT books for Chemistry are a must buy. Chemistry part 1 for Rs 125 and Chemistry part 2 for Rs 85 cover everything in the syllabus. They are the “official” books for the subject.
      • Trueman’s Steps in Chemistry for Class XII Vol I & II priced at Rs 550, it is a great backup for your NCERT book.
      • Pradeep’s New Course Chemistry for Class 12, priced at Rs 742, is a hot favourite because of its simplicity in language and the number of problems it supplements it with.
      • CBSE Sample papers: You can download the papers from the official website. The sample papers provided by the CBSE are as close to the real exam as it gets.

      Related Links

      Syllabus and Marks
      CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Topper Answer Sheet
      Sample Papers

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      How to Prepare Chemistry for Class 12 Board Exam?

      is a scoring subject and students can obtain higher marks in this subject by
      putting in little hard work. Chemistry is a very important subject for
      both Board exams and various Competitive exams. One can easily score 95+
      marks in Chemistry but you must study it regularly. Entrance exams like NEET
      and JEE Mains are conducted within a month after the completion of class 12
      Board Exams. If you have command over this subject then you can really perform
      well in different competitive exams too.

      Why students face difficulty in Chemistry?
      students fail to score good marks in this subject. The only reason behind it is
      that they run away from it. If you really want to perform in this subject then try
      to eject chemistry-phobia from your mind as soon as possible. Believe me,
      chemistry is one of the easiest subjects in the science stream provided you
      study it with full concentration and consistently. You must read chemistry
      regularly or you will fail to prepare it well for the board exam. 

      Important Chemistry Books for class 12 Board Exams 

      NCERT is the most important book for the class 12 board exam
      preparation. We recommend you to go through this book first and try to solve
      exercise questions. In addition to it, you must solve some sample papers to get
      familiar with Application based and HOTS (High Order Thinking
      ) questions. Some of the best books which you can take help
      from have been listed below. You can buy these books from Amazon at exciting
      . When you shop for books worth Rs 500 or more, you also get free home delivery.
      Together with Chemistry
      Xam idea Chemistry and Practice Papers (Recommended)
      Arihant CBSE ChapterwiseSolved Papers 2017-2009

      How to prepare different chapters of Chemistry for Class 12 Board Exam?
      Chemistry consists of 3 portions- Physical chemistry,
      Inorganic chemistry and Organic chemistry. All
      three portions are equally important and if you want to score higher in this
      subject then you must not neglect any portion.
      Physical Chemistry: First of all, learn
      and understand the theoretical portion of this unit. Without understanding
      theory, you will not be able to solve numerical. Learn all formulas of chapters
      like Solid State, Solution, Electrochemistry and Chemical Kinetics. Solve numerical
      regularly to increase your speed. Never neglect the theory portion which is
      equally important for entrance exams too. (Also Read: How to Prepare Chemistry for NEET? )
      Inorganic Chemistry: “How many times have
      you counted the number of pages in “p-Block Elements” before actually learning
      ” It will not help you. Inorganic Chemistry requires lots of
      learning work and you cannot escape from it. NCERT is enough for the
      preparation of this portion. If you have notes then it is great. But, if you
      don’t have it and you are finding it difficult to learn from NCERT then you can
      opt for above mentioned books like Together with or Xam
      you successfully learn this section, rest assured, you will get full marks from
      it. Direct questions are asked from it. Never leave them for the last moment.
      Give at least half an hour to this section daily and keep revising learned
      topics as well to avoid forgetting them. 
      Organic Chemistry: It is probably the easiest
      but important portion of class 12 Chemistry. This section carries 18 marks.
      Learn all organic reactions. Practice them by writing and keep revising learned
      reactions. Solve all word-problems of NCERT exercise. Alcohols,
      Phenols and Ethers
      and Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids are the
      two most important chapters from Organic chemistry. 

      Some important topics from Organic chemistry
      Sandmeyer’s reaction,
      Nucleophilic substitution reaction, Optical isomerism, Electrophilic
      substitution reaction, Esterification, Reimer-Tiemann reaction, Kolbe’s
      reaction, Williamson synthesis, Rosenmud reduction, Gatterman-Koch reaction,
      Nucleophilic addition reaction, Clemmensen reduction, Wolff-Kishner reduction,
      Aldol reaction, Haloform reaction, Cross aldol condensation, Cannizzaro
      reaction, Hell-Volhard Zelinsky reaction, Carbylamine reaction
      Coupling reaction
      Important Chapters
      you want to secure 95+ marks then concentrate equally on all chapters. For weaker
      who want to get at least passing marks i.e. 23, it’s
      important that they prepare selective but important chapters and topics. Prepare
      all above mentioned topics of Organic chemistry. The last three chapters- Biomolecules,
      Polymers and Chemistry in Everyday Life carry 10
      marks together. “p-Block Elements” and “d-Block Elements” carry 13
      marks together. Surface Chemistry and Coordination Compounds should
      also be read well. Good command over these chapters can take your score way
      above passing marks. (Also Read: How to Pass in Chemistry in CBSE Class 12 Board Exam? )
      REVISION is the Key…
      you learn, keep revising them regularly. Many students complain that they
      forget learned topics after few days. It is a common problem. With regular
      revision you can overcome it. Try to solve sample paper at least once a week to
      feel confident about your preparation. Solve last 10-year question papers. First,
      prepare those chapters in which you feel comfortable.
      clearing any doubts-
      Like our Facebook Page and message us directly. You can
      also comment below.



      1. Akanksha Kevalramani 7 January 2014 at 21:43

        Thank you for this wonderful post. I must admit that I’ve just recently developed an attitude (after we learnt p-Block and all the inorganic chemistry in school), that chemistry is absolutely impossible to learn. But, thanks to you, I’ve realized that it’s only impossible as long as I think of it as impossible. 🙂
        I have one doubt. In all the comments, you’ve suggested solving as many papers as possible. However, I still have a ton of portion left to learn in all the subjects. Do you recommend learning everything first and only then moving on to solving all the papers? Because, I feel clueless when I look at any paper right now :$

        Thanks once again 🙂

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 8 January 2014 at 00:12

          Thanks for your appreciation.

          Solving more and more sample papers will help you in diffusing out the board exam fear and you will become much more confident. But at the same time I will suggest you to finish your exam portion first. In that case you can solve sample paper on weekly basis.

          Best of Luck


        2. Ajithkumar Ajith 4 September 2016 at 19:10

          sir i m weak n organic chemistry, to get good marks in tat what r the things i have to do sir?


        3. Ritesh Kumar 4 September 2016 at 20:32

          Organic chemistry requires both learning and regular practice. Learn all reactions first and them try to practice them by writing and solving conversions.


        4. Ritesh Kumar 28 December 2016 at 21:24

          If you have read those 12 chapters earlier then there should not be any problem. If not, then it is a bit unrealistic target. I will suggest you to solve sample papers and focus on revision instead of learning new chapters.


        5. Reply

      2. Meena Khanna 12 January 2014 at 19:33

        My daughter has finished studying chemistry once . She tells me she keeps forgetting th e reactions. How should I ask her to study.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 12 January 2014 at 20:03

          Ask her to revise learned chapters daily. She must practice sample papers like Evergreen. Revision is mandatory to perform well in the board exam.


        2. Reply

      3. yamini 13 January 2014 at 15:18

        hello sir i am weak in numerical part what to do?? nd i get bored after 1 hr studying chem.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 14 January 2014 at 18:07

          To feel confident while solving numericals, you need to solve more and more questions and sample paper. Take regular breaks while studying chemistry to avoid getting bored.



        2. Reply

      4. sandy rocky 22 January 2014 at 00:17

        sir, i am weak in chem,i score only 25/70 . i want to score 45/70. how can i score this mark.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 22 January 2014 at 19:23

          Complete chapters like Biomolecules, Polymers, Chemistry in everyday life, Coordination compound, Surface chemistry, Solid state and Solution first. Then look for organic chemistry. I have mentioned important topics in the above article go through them. I will recommend you Xam idea for board exam preparation.


        2. Reply

      5. aditi 2 July 2014 at 19:22

        are just ncert books enough for scoring more than 90% ?

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 3 July 2014 at 15:02

          Undoubtedly NCERT books are more than enough to score over 90 percent in the board exam. Your preparation should strictly revolve around syllabus based on NCERT.


        2. Reply

      6. karthik np 14 January 2015 at 07:39

        much helpful a great thanks for exams hub

        Reply Delete

      7. ANOOP MATHAI 1 February 2015 at 20:40

        what about if we revise chemistry by using past 10 years chemistry question papers of all ind, delhi, all india compartment, delhi compartment and foriegn papers

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 3 February 2015 at 18:28

          It will surely help, but don’t expect by reading these only you will get over 80 marks. You must follow NCERT book for better performance.


        2. Reply

      8. ANOOP MATHAI 8 February 2015 at 14:47

        sir are the derivations in chemistry important. If yes then can you please mention which one of them are important.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 8 February 2015 at 22:34

          No, these are not asked in chemistry.


        2. Reply

      9. rachit kumar 21 February 2015 at 00:27

        sir i have trouble in studying conversions..not able to do conversions questions..plse tell me the way how to understand conversions..

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 21 February 2015 at 15:26

          For solving conversions, you must memorize all the reactions in organic chemistry


        2. Reply

      10. kratika saxena 21 February 2015 at 19:36

        How many marks do numericals contain in chemistry exam?? sir pls tell me …

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 22 February 2015 at 17:37

          It varies between 10 to 15 marks


        2. Reply

      11. archana singh 22 February 2015 at 19:59

        Sir I want to score 70/70 in chemistry. Can u please give me some tips so that I could accomplish my target?

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 22 February 2015 at 20:21

          NCERT is the only solution for that. Try to have complete command over that.


        2. Reply

      12. Harshal Wadhwa 23 February 2015 at 02:39

        You’re article was really helpful sir. It gave me a new hope that I still can clear my chemistry exam. Chemistry is my really big weak point. There are hardly any days left and I am only done with the last three chapters. Can you please suggest a way to get the magical 23? Thank you.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 23 February 2015 at 08:40

          The last 3 chapters will give you 10 marks. Now complete surface chemistry, coordination compound, Haloalkane and solid state which are bit easier and you can get close to 30 marks by studying them.


        2. Reply

      13. Prateek Pawar 5 July 2015 at 11:29

        Sir, what is the best way to memorize organic Chem. ?

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 5 July 2015 at 14:25

          Regular practice is the only secret, more you practice them by writing, more confident you will become


        2. Reply

      14. stuti 17 September 2015 at 19:52

        namestey sir ,,m stuti frm odisha..m an average student bt frm ur advices nw m confident…m just left wid 5 mnths for boards bt i hav not yet started preparations as the syllabus is not yet ovr at skul…plz guide me sir to score atleast a 65/70 in boards,..awaiting for ur advices..thnx a lot

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 17 September 2015 at 20:43

          Important chapters and topics have been mentioned above. To get over 65 in chemistry is quite easy provided you have complete command over NCERT. 5 months are enough to go through this book. Start learning inorganic chemistry now. Practice conversions and reactions in organic chemistry daily. You will perform well.


        2. Reply

      15. Niva Vs 2 October 2015 at 18:43

        i find it a bit difficult to study the organic chapters. the main thing is that i forget/confuse the reagents used in the reactions. what can i do to solve this prob

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 5 October 2015 at 07:04

          Try to learn them by writing again and again, read NCERT and study them regularly


        2. Reply

      16. suvin 17 October 2015 at 15:45

        sir i knew that i am good in physical chemistry and organic chemistry .but i find it quite difficult to attend inorganic chemistry. what shall i do in order to score marks????

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 19 October 2015 at 19:02

          Start Memorizing them now and do not leave them for the last moment. NCERT is the best book for preparing inorganic chemistry. Without learning them you cannot score well. Direct questions are asked from this section and it helps in scoring higher.


        2. Reply

      17. Anonymous 2 November 2015 at 06:33

        Thanks sir for your three line answer is enough for 3 mark question. For 5 mark which lessons I should concentrate more.please help me sir

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 2 November 2015 at 20:35

          Samuel, length of answer depends on question. In Chemistry, answers are not too long. If your answer is appropriate then it does not depend upon its length, you will get full marks. For 5 Marks, give attention to important chapters which have been mentioned in the above article.


        2. Reply

      18. Anonymous 4 December 2015 at 11:57

        hello sir, im in class 12 with PCB, i’m very weak in chem. and know nothing of organic chem, i want to score good marks in board so can you please help me in telling which book should i prefer.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 4 December 2015 at 12:24

          Go through NCERT. It is not that difficult, take interest in it. You can take help of any other reference book in addition too.


        2. Reply

      19. snowprince Yaser 6 December 2015 at 16:44

        sir, how to score good marks in vsaqs

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 6 December 2015 at 18:48

          Read NCERT carefully, only then you can attempt all Short answer Questions. Solve objective questions too.


        2. Reply

      20. Jeevan Gururani 30 December 2015 at 18:42

        is ncert ony sufficient to prepare 4 board exams or not …….
        nd 4 organic hw 2 remem the rxnss
        itzz really diffi to cram them

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 2 January 2016 at 18:14

          NCERT is more than enough for board and competitive exams. Reactions from organic can be remembered by writing them several times on paper.


        2. Reply

      21. Shubhanshu Singh 4 January 2016 at 22:58

        Sir i have prepared numerical nd organic portions but sir in the inorganic and the last 3 chapters i face lot of difficulties. I keep forgetting the structures nd formulae i had learnt 2-3 days ago…how should i muck these up?? I also dont have much time left ..should i solve papers or firstly prepare this portion well??

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 5 January 2016 at 13:38

          You are not the only guy to have this problem. The last 3 chapters carry 10 marks so don’t ignore them. Inorganic chemistry and these 3 chapters should be revised regularly to avoid forgetting them. Remember Structures and formulas by writing them several times.

          Give inorganic chemistry at least an hour a day and start solving mock papers too. Read inorganic chemistry daily and this section is important because direct questions are asked from them and you can score well in it.


        2. Reply

      22. yash 6 January 2016 at 19:10

        how to overcome multi-step interconversion, it is difficult to remember all the reactions there is nearly two months for the exams how can prepare to get minimum 55/70 in chemistry

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 6 January 2016 at 20:10

          You must learn all reactions for getting better in doing conversions. Learn them by writing several times. 2 months are enough to score well in chemistry, just have full command over NCERT.


        2. Reply

      23. Gagandeep Kaur 19 January 2016 at 21:16

        Sir I’ve studied chemistry but still I am forgetting .
        Dont know what’s happening????
        So plz tell how can I revise them in 5 days bcz I have my practical s too.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 21 January 2016 at 17:47

          It is a very common problem. Don’t take stress. Just solve one or two sample paper to feel confident. Solve few numericals and conversions to revise physical and organic chemistry.


        2. Reply

      24. Harshil Jangid 27 January 2016 at 19:34

        Sir i dont know how to study because i have read all the chapters and before exam i am very confidant to score well but i dont get good marks.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 28 January 2016 at 20:01

          You should try to solve sample papers at least once a week. Try to revise organic chemistry by writing them. Give emphasis on revision. Don’t take too much stress. Hard work never goes unrewarded. You will succeed. Don’t feel nervous in the exam hall, probably it is affecting your score.


        2. Reply

      25. Tushar Rajput 18 February 2016 at 01:04

        When I start study I get confused which book is best for boards please suggest me which book is best for boards I have xam idea,ncert,paradeep

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 18 February 2016 at 11:26

          Undoubtedly, NCERT is the best book not only for the board exams but also for the different competitive exams.


        2. Tushar Rajput 19 February 2016 at 00:12

          If I study only ncert and solve all questions of ncert then can I score 40 marks


        3. Ritesh Kumar 19 February 2016 at 15:14

          If you have full command over NCERT then you can easily score over 55 marks or even higher.


        4. Reply

      26. Vardhan Jain 6 March 2016 at 01:24

        Thnxs for clearing our doubts sir
        I wanted to know now only 3 days are for board exam so which chapters should we study first also plz tell me should previous year questions is enough for preparation or how much I should do ncert questions , I don’t want to read ncert full chapters I can read Questions….plz suggest me sir

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 6 March 2016 at 17:51

          You cannot read the entire book now. Solve previous year papers. Revise those chapters first which you find easier and don’t waste time on reading difficult ones. Practice numericals for preparing physical chemistry and you will succeed.


        2. Reply

      27. rituparna gupta 25 May 2016 at 23:05

        Sir,I don’t know properly the organic portion of class 11 and now I am in. Class 12. And I am facing difficulties in organic portion.
        tell me what should I do I am very scared

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 30 May 2016 at 19:13

          I will recommend you to go through the last two chapters of organic chemistry of 11th class, that will create base for you and help you tremendously in class 12. You have enough time, just read them properly.


        2. Reply

      28. rituparna gupta 9 June 2016 at 12:19

        Thank you so much sir

        Reply Delete

      29. sri hrashini V 7 July 2016 at 11:36

        Yeah this is being useful..I face difficulty in physical chemistry especially in the numerical….this makes me upset and irritated…this makes me dislike the subject..and sir there isn’t any good faculty in our school…and this is the only subject I’m very scared…and also in organic part I face difficulty too….sir please help me to come out the problem…I want to score excellent marks in this subject….to tell the truth I didn’t understand anything in the first 4 chapters…sir please help n guide me

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 7 July 2016 at 19:59

          You need to understand the theoretical portion too in order to solve numericals. I’ll recommend you to find a good tuition teacher if you don’t have good faculty at school. Try to read NCERT book properly as it is vital for both board exams and competitive exams.

          For organic chemistry, I’ll suggest you to go through a little bit of class 11 chemistry to prepare the base. Again, NCERT is the best book for preparing this portion.


        2. Reply

      30. Sandhya P 17 August 2016 at 19:26

        i have studied the my chemistry book competely but while writting the answers i do not know why i get mixed up . i know i answer but i cannot represent it properly , and at exam i even forgets the answer. please help me sir .

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 19 August 2016 at 16:50

          You should try to solve Sample papers regularly. Also ensure that you revise learned chapters frequently. Revision is the key to success in the board exams. Try to read chemistry from NCERT.


        2. Ravi Kumar 7 September 2016 at 19:27

          Sir direct question is coming form ncert chemistry mean same question over from ncert.


        3. Ritesh Kumar 7 September 2016 at 19:51

          By referring to direct questions, I mean that questions are strictly based on NCERT and you can answer them easily if you read book properly. Direct questions are frequently asked in Inorganic chemistry.


        4. Reply

      31. ANKIT MISHRA 9 September 2016 at 19:39

        sir i want to score 90% + in boards so what is the reference book i should refer for chemistry the most

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 17 September 2016 at 19:07

          For more than 90 percent, I will recommend you to go through NCERT first then you can opt for any book


        2. Reply

      32. aneesh kumar 21 September 2016 at 01:50

        Hello sir,i am student of class 12 the and I am countinously failing in chemistry .I don’t no anything in chemistry . especially the organic chemistry.only 4 months r left for board exams.i am very scared pls tell me how to study and score 40 in board exams.i am zero in chemistry.only u can help me.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 21 September 2016 at 20:56

          Hi Annesh, You can’t be zero in this subject. Probably, your efforts are zero. Don’t take much stress and have confidence that you can do it. Still you have time in your hands. Study easier chapters first. Organic chemistry is not that tough, just you need to do more practice and read selected topics.

          I have mentioned some important topics from organic chemistry above, prepare them first. Practice last 10 year question paper. Start learning inorganic chemistry now, direct questions are asked from them. Solid state and Solution can also be done easily. Don’t run away from chemistry. The last 3 chapters carry 10 marks, prepare them well. You will get more than 40 in board exam.

          Like Exams Hub Facebook Page and send us message directly, you will get quick reply.


        2. Reply

      33. Niharika R S 31 October 2016 at 19:43

        Hello sir. Sir I’m a good student in school in all subjects especially math I always get 95 + ,but chemistry is little difficult sir. I don’t score good marks in chemistry, my miss says my answering is not proper. What should I do?

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 31 October 2016 at 20:13

          I will recommend you to prepare chemistry through NCERT book to improve your answering skills. Revise learned chapters daily to avoid forgetting them. As you told, you are good in Maths then you should not have problems in numericals.

          In Inorganic Chemistry you need to learn a lot and there is no shortcut to it. Start learning chapters like p and d block from today itself. Direct questions are asked from them and they are scoring chapters. Some important topics from Organic Chemistry have been given above, go through them first.

          Learn all organic reactions by writing them repeatedly. It will help you while doing conversions. Solve sample papers after completing every chapter to strengthen your answering skills.


        2. Reply

      34. Muddassar Shaikh 9 November 2016 at 20:10

        Sir, What books u prefer for mcq’s to perfect the concepts of the lessons. I have a fixed book for other subject but can’t decide on chemistry??

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 10 November 2016 at 22:00

          You can go for Master the NCERT of Arihant publication. I have given a link to this book in above post.


        2. Reply

      35. simanto barik 22 December 2016 at 22:29

        Sir plz tell me what are the main topic i read for 2017 so i score 50

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 24 December 2016 at 22:40

          Important topics from organic chemistry has been given above. Follow the above tips and solve last 10 years question paper too.


        2. Reply

      36. Satyam kumar sharma 12 January 2017 at 19:54

        I have read all the chapter ones from NCERT but still feel I know nothing. I have not joined any coaching.
        One month is left for board exams and I want to score above 65.
        Please suggest.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 13 January 2017 at 17:33

          It’s good you have covered NCERT at least for once. Try to revise learned chapters regularly and solve sample papers and previous year papers to feel confident in it. Organic and Physical chemistry require daily practice. Learn all organic reactions before doing conversions. Inorganic requires lots of learning, don’t leave them too late. Learn them daily for at least an hour. You will surely get desired result.


        2. Reply

      37. nivin 11 February 2017 at 20:37

        i dont know anything in chemistry,but i want obove 100 marks….pls give a solution

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 11 February 2017 at 23:17

          Have a realistic target to succeed. You have few weeks now and if you don’t know anything then your first target should be to pass in your chemistry paper.


        2. Reply

      38. Syd Sajjad 17 February 2017 at 11:34

        Sir i have only 20days please help i only know 2 chapters.(solid state and solution)..I’m confused..i wish to get atleast above 30.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 17 February 2017 at 12:07

          Don’t worry. Complete Biomolecules, Polymers and Chemistry in Everyday life. These 3 chapters carry 10 marks. Then, prepare coordination compound, p and d block elements through notes or books like xam idea. Some important organic chemistry reactions have been mentioned above, prepare them well. You will get over 40 marks.


        2. Reply

      39. sayani paul 17 February 2017 at 14:05

        Sir I am finding it very difficult to learn the reactions in p block ..Plz help …..

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 19 February 2017 at 21:39

          p-block is very important chapter. Revise learned reactions regularly by writing. Learn hybridisation, structure and preparation of various compounds also.


        2. Reply

      40. Aaesha kapoor 26 February 2017 at 19:36

        Sir …if I complete …the question papers of last 10 years CBSE board …then approx , much can I score in board ?

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 27 February 2017 at 14:51

          By solving last 10 year question papers, you get command over the frequently asked important questions. But, it is hard to predict marks. It will surely boost your preparation.


        2. Reply

      41. Shashank Kumar 1 March 2017 at 14:02

        Sir is it sufficient if we solve each and every question in ncert for chemistry?

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 2 March 2017 at 17:56

          It is hard to predict that every question will be asked from NCERT exercise only. But, solving questions from NCERT will surely help you.


        2. Reply

      42. chetanya Singh 10 March 2017 at 13:52

        sir thank u one question how to be prepared in last wo weeksbefoe chemistry wxam

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 10 March 2017 at 14:59

          Now you should focus more on revision. Practice by solving previous year papers and sample papers. Avoid learning new stuffs.


        2. Reply

      43. Tanya Agarwal 17 March 2017 at 11:38

        I do not learned anything in chemistry my exam is on 25march .suggest me how can I prepared chemistry so at least I can get 35-40 marks.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 17 March 2017 at 20:25

          Learn last 3 chapters which carry 10 marks. Prepare inorganic chemistry through notes or books like Xam idea, it will require less time. In coordination compound focus on nomenclature, isomerism, CFT and hybridisation. Important organic chemistry reactions have been given above. Prepare Physical Chemistry as per your convenience.


        2. Reply

      44. Roham Bhargava 21 March 2017 at 12:49

        Sir I find difficulty in reading the NCERT textbook I find the book lengthy so how to read NCERT textbook with interest it is necessary to only read NCERT textbook

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 21 March 2017 at 13:59

          Now when few days are left I will suggest you to prepare for your examination from notes. NCERT is important because questions are asked from this book only in the board exams.


        2. Reply

      45. Dhruv Bansal 12 April 2017 at 09:58

        Sir,now i am in 12th so i have pure one year left from now,but i have not studied 11th chemistry well so i mean to say that in 12th chemistry depends on 11th chemistry or not and sir how can i score above 60 from 70 in chemistry from now if i give 1 hour daily from now….sir plzzz reply as soon as possible.thnxx

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 12 April 2017 at 19:51

          You can achieve your target but it will require some hard work. For organic chemistry you will need class 11 knowledge. Other chapters can be done easily. Focus on NCERT to prepare inorganic chemistry and other stuffs. Regular study and revision of learned chapters are key to succeed in class 12 and it is good to see that you are taking initiative so early.


        2. Bishakha Malakar 1 June 2017 at 09:44

          Will you please tell me how can I make chemistry notes? I mean during exams it will be impossible to read the whole book. So, how can I make notes?


        3. Ritesh Kumar 2 June 2017 at 13:01

          Notes will be helpful in Inorganic and Organic chemistry. While making notes, ensure you are not copying just the NCERT, instead prepare it in points and in your own language. Your notes should include all those organic and inorganic reactions which you think you can easily forget. Keep visiting notes frequently.


        4. Reply

      46. Unknown 3 August 2017 at 08:16

        Hello sir….
        I am Ashar…
        I haven*t started preparations for board.would you pls tell me how I start?
        From which chapter?

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 3 August 2017 at 16:59

          Hi Ashar, You should start learning inorganic chemistry as it involves lots of learning work and you must not leave it for the final months. Practice numericals and organic reactions daily. You can start with any chapter that you find easier.


        2. Reply

      47. MJ AHMED 22 October 2017 at 23:01

        Sir,,, i’m very much uncomfertable with coordinate chem and CH-11…
        what should i do…

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 24 October 2017 at 13:48

          You must clear concept in coordinate chemistry, first. Look to cover Nomenclature, Hybridisation, CFT and Isomerism, initially to do well in it. In organic chemistry, try to learn organic reactions to do well. Practice them by writing more and more.


        2. Reply

      48. Deepthi Thenmozhi 28 December 2017 at 12:14

        Hi, my boards are in 2 months and I haven’t prepared anything. If I focus on the topics you mentioned above will it help me to get 30marks?
        Plus I was a 2016-2017 batch student but I failed my physics and chemistry. So Im reappearing this year. All I need is 30marks in theory. I have full 30marks in practicals. Please reply.

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 30 December 2017 at 17:24

          Organic topics mentioned above are important. Prepare last 3 chapters well along with surface chemistry. Solve previous year papers. You will get desired result. p-block is also important, hence prepare it through notes and solve MCQs from it for quick preparation.


        2. Reply

      49. Unknown 9 January 2018 at 08:08

        Tnx….for enhancing my confidence level

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 10 January 2018 at 19:30

          It’s really encouraging to hear that from you, Nutan. Best of luck for your exams.


        2. Reply

      50. Delhi Digital Courses 12 January 2018 at 18:12

        Thank You So Much Sir for useful information. It is very helpful for me.

        Reply Delete

      51. Sanchay 6 February 2018 at 12:35

        Hey nice post dude…
        I have a question..
        When i entered class 12th, i learnt Organic chemistry very well and i was very good at it. But now its a long time… Now i find somewhat difficulty in organic.. Although i know all reaction but in conversions it feels difficult… I dont have much problem in physical and inorganic… And its only a month left for boards… Can u pls advice me how can i revise the things…

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 6 February 2018 at 17:41

          One month is enough for organic chemistry. Practice conversions daily, start it from NCERT itself then move to sample papers. It’s like numericals, more you solve, better you will become.


        2. Sanchay 7 February 2018 at 14:16

          thanks buddy.. I already started doing exercises… Pls tell one more thing, should i practise sample papers or last year board papers??


        3. Ritesh Kumar 7 February 2018 at 14:21

          First solve previous year papers and then look to solve as many sample papers as you could.


        4. Reply

      52. Himanshu Sharma 8 March 2018 at 00:42

        Hello Sir/Mam
        Iam revising my syllabus of chemistry but iam having difficulties in organic chemistry. What Type Of questions should I learn to get Good Marks in Chemistry??
        Name: Himanshu Sharma

        Reply Delete


        1. Ritesh Kumar 8 March 2018 at 10:18

          Hi Himanshu, learn organic reactions if you could only then you could perform in Organic section. Try to solve previous year papers now. Only 5 days are left, you should give equal time in each section.


        2. Reply

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            picha pie english version


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            “pie” English translation


            “pie” in English


            • pie

            “pie” in Swahili




            • pie
            More information

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            Translations & Examples

            SW pie noun



            EN pie




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            Other dictionary words


            • pesa
            • peta
            • pete
            • petroli
            • pevu
            • pewa
            • pi
            • pi?
            • pia
            • picha
            • pie
            • piga
            • piga hesabu
            • piga kelele
            • piga marufuku
            • pigana
            • pigano
            • pigia
            • pika
            • pikia
            • pikipiki

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            BENTE (2CD+DVD) (CD, Album) album cover

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            Parokya Ni Edgar


            BENTE (2CD+DVD)


            Universal Records (7) ‎– CDP-94,1566/B


            CD , Album

            CD , Album

            DVD , DVD-Video, NTSC, Album, Limited Edition, Special Edition, Stereo





            Rock , Funk / Soul , Blues , Pop , Folk, World, & Country


            AOR , Acoustic , Ballad , Blues Rock , Folk , Alternative Rock , Pop Punk , Post Rock , Rock & Roll , Vocal


            Disc 1(audio CD)
            1 Ang Parokya
            2 Buloy
            3 Maniwala Ka Sana
            4 Silvertoes
            5 Harana
            6 Picha Pie
            7 Halaga
            8 Inuman Na
            9 Swimming Beach
            10 Sorry Na
            11 This Guy’s In Love With You Pare
            12 Mr. Suave
            13 The Yes Yes Show
            14 Chikinini
            15 Your Song (My One And Only You)
            Disc 2 (audio CD)
            1 Mang Jose
            2 Para Sayo
            3 Papa Cologne
            4 The Ordertaker
            5 Gitara
            6 Bagsakan
            7 First Day Funk
            8 Macho
            9 Akala
            10 Boys Do Falling Love
            11 Pakiusap Lang
            12 Pangarap Lang Kita
            13 One Hit Combo
            Bonus Track
            14 Salamat Po
            DVD (music video)
            1Ang Parokya
            3 Maniwala Ka
            6Picha Pie
            8Inuman Na
            9Swimming Beach
            10Sorry Na
            11 Mr. Suave
            12 The Yes Yes Show
            13 Chikinini
            14 Mang Jose
            15 Para Sayo
            16 Papa Cologne
            17 THE Ordertaker
            18 Gitara
            19 Bagsakan
            20 First Day Funk
            21 Macho (Version 1)
            22 Macho (Version 2)
            23 Akala
            24 Pakiusap Lang (LASINGIN NYO AKO)
            25 Pangarap Lang Kita (Version 1)
            26 Pangarap Lang Kita (Version 2)
            27 Pangarap Lang Kita (Version 3)
            28 One Hit Combo

            Barcode and Other Identifiers

            • Barcode: 4 800594 488262


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            amelia earhart school detroit mi

            Amelia Earhart Middle School

            1000 Scotten Street

            This attractive school building is located
            on an exceptionally well-landscaped campus.   Not all public schools
            are surrounded by green trees and flowering bushes.   Sylvan
            Clark Park, with its sculpture garden, recreation center and soccer fields
            is just across Scotten, so the school compliments this much revived park.  This
            is a multicultural and technologically advanced middle school serving largely
            Hispanic neighborhoods.  I presume that it was built in the late 1950s,
            but I do not know who designed the school or exactly when it was completed.

            It is named after the nation’s first famous
            aviatrix.  Amelia Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas in 1897, but her
            father apparently held many different jobs in several locations.  Her
            family moved to Chicago and she graduated from Hyde Park High School in 1915.  She
            lived for some time with a sister in Toronto and served, during World War I,
            as a nurse’s aide in a military hospital there.  She attended Columbia
            University in New York for one year and obtained the credentials needed to become
            a social worker.

            In 1920, she returned to her family of origin.  At
            that time, they were living in California.  Her father took her for
            an airplane ride.  She became smitten with aviation and devoted the
            rest of her life to flying, although she was employed as a social worker
            in Boston for several years in the 1920s.  She began flight instruction
            early in 1921 and purchased a small plane that year, a Kinner Airster biplane.  In
            1922, she set a women’s altitude record by soaring to 14,000 feet.

            Her achievements were recognized.  In
            1927, Charles Lindberg became the first person to fly across the Atlantic.  Amelia
            Earhart was the first woman to cross the Atlantic in a plane.  Pilot
            Wilmer Stultz invited her to accompany him and his co-pilot, Louis Gordon,
            on June, 1928 trip on a Fokker plane.  The flight from Newfoundland
            to Wales took them just under 21 hours.  In 1929, she helped to organize
            a cross country air race for women aviators only.  Actually, the women
            flew their planes from Los Angeles to Cleveland.  Will Rogers labeled
            this the "Powder Puff Derby" and it became an annual event.

            No one duplicated Detroiter Charles Lindberg’s
            solo flight across the Atlantic for five years.  Amelia Earhart was the
            second person and first woman to fly solo from America to Europe.  Flying
            a Lockheed Vega, she took off from Newfoundland on May 20, 1932 with the intention
            of landing in Paris as Lindberg had.  Challenges forced her to put down
            in a farm field near Londonderry.  This led to a classic aviation story.  As
            she was exiting her plane, the farmer arrived.  Amelia Earhart asked: "Where
            am I?"  The cryptic Irish farmer answered "Gallagher’’s
            farm" and then asked "Have you come far?"  Apparently,
            Amelia Earhart casually answered "From America."   She
            was widely acclaimed in the United States for this feat.

            In 1935, Amelia Earhart won distinction as
            the first person to fly solo across the Pacific.  In truth, this was
            a flight from Honolulu to San Francisco.  Previously, ten men had tried
            to accomplish that trip but failed.   In 1937, she sought to become
            the first woman to fly around the world.  Such a trip took much preparation
            and a rebuilding of her Lockheed L-10 Electra.  She and her navigator,
            Fred Noonan, took off from California on June 1, 1937 and flew in an easterly
            direction to benefit from wind currents.  They completed 22,000 of their
            29,000 journey when they arrived at Lea, New Guinea at the end of June.  On
            July 2, they took off from New Guinea with the intention of landing at Howland
            Island on their way to Hawaii.  Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan were
            never heard from again.

            It is interesting that there is a Detroit
            public school named for Amelia Earhart, but none for Charles Lindberg.  Lindberg
            was born in Detroit on February 4, 1902 while his mother was a teacher at
            Cass Tech.  There is, so far as I know, no commemoration of Lindberg
            in Detroit.  I wonder if this is attributable to Lindberg’s political
            and racial beliefs at the start of World War II.   

            Architect: Unknown to me
            Date of Construction:  Late 1950s or early 1960s, I think
            Use in 2009:  Middle School
            City of Detroit Designated Historic District: Amelia Earhart School is within
            the Hubbard Farms Historic District, Listed
            February 26, 1993
            State of Michigan Registry of Historic Sites: Not listed
            National Register of Historic Places: Amelia Earhart School is within the
            Hubbard Farms Historic District. Listed January 29, 1993.
            Website for Amelia Earhart School:
            Website for Amelia Earhart:
            Website for Clark Park:
            Photograph:  Ren Farley, November 6, 2008
            Description prepared: January 7, 2009


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