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iVisa | Updated on Jul 29, 2018

Brazil e-Visa Processing Time

When you plan your vacation, one of the first things you need to do is research your destination’s visa policy. You do not want to end up without all the required paperwork a week before departure. If you choose Brazil as your destination, there is good news for you. There are four countries whose citizens can obtain an electronic visa , which basically means you are no longer required to go to the diplomatic mission and get one. For now, only US citizens, Australians, Canadians and Japanese citizens enjoy this privilege, but inevitably in the future, the list will become longer.

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Now, when you go to the embassy, you know from the start that you must arm yourself with patience. There may be a line, and then depending on the season, you may have to wait a while for your visa to be released. Fortunately, with electronic visas, you do not have to worry about that. You can have a Brazil e-Visa in as little as 4 business days and apply for it from the confort of your house or office.

What are the processing time options?

iVisa acknowledges the fact that there are people with different needs, which is why they created three excellent options respecting everyone’s time, and of course, budget.
iVisa offers you the following options to process your Brazil e-Visa. Please note that none of them include the e-Visa cost of 44.50 USD.

  1. Standard processing time – this is your cheapest option. It costs only 35 USD (or the equivalent in your state’s currency.) However, you must wait 10 days for your application to be processed. It is a relatively short amount of time compared to how long you have to wait at the embassy, and if you usually like to plan ahead, you should have no issues with getting your visa on time. iVisa recommends that you apply at least 12 days before your departure date. While delays are highly unlikely, it can happen, and you do not want to be caught off guard. However, you will be notified in case that happens. Keep in mind that iVisa works with the authorities that issue the visas, so if the mentioned authorities have delays, iVisa has its hands tied.

  2. Rush processing time – this option provides a shorter amount of waiting time. It costs more than the previous option, 65 USD to be more precise, but your application will be processed within 6 business days. Just like with the previous processing time, iVisa recommends that you apply 7-8 days before your departure so that if delays happen, you do not have to change your departure date.

  3. Super Rush processing time – this is an option destined to satisfy the needs of people who need their visa as fast as possible. Let’s say that you have family in Brazil and there is an emergency. Ten or six days may be too long to wait for your visa, which is why this option guarantees that your Brazil evisa will arrive within just 4 business days. Of course, you will be charged more for the urgency. This option will cost you 100 USD.

As you can see, the Brazil e-visa processing time is more than reasonable. You have options, which is something you do not see very often, and the urgency fees are not that high. Moreover, it would be quite tricky to get a Brazil visa in only four days by going to the embassy, which means that iVisa provides the best possible solution to your problem.

Apply for a Brazil Visa

Click here to apply for a Brazil visa.

Brazil Articles

  • Brazil Visa Application Form
  • Brazil Visa Duration
  • Brazil Visa Fee for Australians
  • Brazil Visa Fee for Canadians
  • Brazil Visa Fee for Japanese Citizens
  • Brazil Visa Fee for US Citizens
  • Brazil Visa Requirements
  • Brazil Visa Requirements for Australians
  • Brazil Visa Requirements for Canadians
  • Brazil Visa Requirements for Japanese Citizens
  • Brazil Visa Requirements for US Citizens
  • Brazil e-Visa Price, Fees, and Costs
  • Brazil e-Visa Processing Time
  • Brazil e-Visa for Australians
  • Brazil e-Visa for Canadians
  • Brazil e-Visa for Japanese Citizens
  • Brazil e-Visa for US Citizens
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Brazil Visa Application Form

Electronic travel authorization to enter Brazil
Apply for Brazil eVisa

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Brazil eVisa » Brazil eVisa Application Form

Brazil eVisa Application Form

Brazilian Visa Enrollment Online process

Find out the eligibily requirements and Submit the Brazil online Visa application form today!

Apply for Brazil eVisa

Brazil Visa Application Form

The Brazil visa application consists of completing an online form which only takes a few minutes to submit. Applicants are required to provide information about their travel plans, their health history, some security-related questions, and some basic personal details such as name, address, and date of birth.

It is important that you enter all the required information carefully as incorrect information, or incomplete sections could result in your Brazil eVisa application being rejected.

Once you have submitted the Brazil online visa application form it normally takes 5 working days to process. Sometimes additional paperwork is required which lengthens the process.

Brazil eVisa application for children

All visitors regardless of age must have a visa to enter Brazil . This also includes young children travelling on parents’ laps.

Currently, we are unable to process visas for children endorsed on their parents’ passports. Children must have their own passport to apply for an eVisa for Brazil. The eVisa fee is the same for minors and adults.

As well as providing their own documentation, minors also need to provide the passport bio page, a passport-size photo , and a Minor Authorization Letter from either one or both parents, or their legal guardian.

Brazil visa requirements

The Brazil visa requirements are the same for all citizens of the eligible countries Australia, Canada, USA, and Japan. Each applicant will need to complete the Brazil visa application form and submit the required documentation.

The Brazilian visa application form is quick and simple to complete. It takes just a few minutes and involves entering your contact details, information about your trip, your health history, and some security-related questions.

Brazil travel eVisa requirements: In addition to completing the application form, each applicant must:

  1. Possess a valid passport from one of the eligible countries (Australia, Canada, the U.S., and Japan).
  2. Pay the Brazil eVisa fee using a credit or debit card.
  3. Provide details of an email address to receive the Brazil Visa.

Travelers may be required to upload a passport-size photo which can be submitted at a later date and does need to be provided at the moment of online application. The Brazil visa requirements must be met before submitting the application.

 

The passport-size photo must meet the following specifications:

  • It must be taken from the front, against white background.
  • Face and shoulders must be centralized on the camera, and the applicant’s eyes must be looking into the camera.
  • There must not be reflections, shadows or glare in the picture.
  • The applicant’s facial expression must be neutral and the eyes must be open.
  • Dark glasses, non-prescription glasses with tinted lenses, and glasses with thick frames are not acceptable.
  • Headgear including hats, are unacceptable, unless there is a necessary religious reason. However, headgear cannot prevent a perfect, clear view of the applicant’s face.
  • Children must not appear with toys or pacifiers, the hands of people holding them must be out of view.

How to get a eVisa for Brazil?

Applying for a Brazil visa involves just a few simple steps:

Check Application

1. Complete the Brazil visa application

Pay

2. Pay the Brazil Online Visa fee

eVisa

3. Receive the Brazil eVisa in your inbox

 

The Brazil visa application form is simple and will take just a few minutes to complete. You will be asked to enter your basic biographic details and your passport info. Make sure you enter the correct details when filling out the Brazilian visa application online.

Applicants should meet the Brazil visa requirements. It is necessary to have a valid passport from one of the eligible countries, a credit or debit card to pay the fee, and a current email address to receive the Brazil eVisa.

How long does it take to get a Brazilian online visa?

The Brazil visa application form only takes a few minutes to fill out. Applicants are required to complete each section in order to obtain the visa for Brazil.

After the Brazil visa form is completed and the visa fee has been paid it can take around 5 working days to process the Brazilian visa application online. The approved travel authorization for Brazil will be sent directly to the traveler’s inbox.

On some occasions, the Brazil visa application process can take longer as additional documentation may be requested. Applicants are advised to allow extra time for this.

How long will my Brazilian visa enrollment be valid for?

The Brazil eVisa is valid for a period of 2 years or until the passport expires.
The Brazilian Visa cannot be transferred between passports.

If a passport expires before the validity of the accompanying eVisa, the traveler would need to apply for a Brazil visa again in order to enter the country.

The Brazil visitor visa allows travelers to spend 90 days a year in Brazil for multiple purposes, over the 2 year period.

What information can I Update?

When you apply for a Brazil visa it is highly important that you enter the correct details and complete each section of the Brazilian visa form.

The Brazil visa form online is straightforward and only takes a few minutes to complete. Make sure you revise all the information you enter before you submit the Brazilian visa application form.

It is necessary to provide accurate information. However, if you realize you have made a mistake on your application after you have submitted it, contact our customer service team and we will help you.

Click here to find out about the cost of the eVisa for Brazil.

    Apply for Brazil eVisa

    Related Post

    • The Brazil eVisa for Australian citizens
    • Do children need a visa for Brazil?
    • Top 10 Traditional Brazilian Dishes

    Related FAQ

    • If my visa application is rejected, can I apply again?
    • What if I lose my eVisa for Brazil?
    • How long is a Brazil visa valid for?
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Best Answer: 
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salton ice cream maker directions


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Question about Salton Ice Cream Makers

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I need a manual for a Salton ice-cream maker model SIM 26

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Re: I need a manual for a Salton ice-cream maker model…

Are you sure of the model number? I just went to their website and did not find anything about ice-cream makers. Here is a list of all their model numbers. Nothing even close.
https://salton.com/instruction-books-manuals

salton.com

Salton Instruction Booklets

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Download an instruction manual…

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SOURCE: I have freestanding Series 8 dishwasher. Lately during the filling cycle water hammer is occurring. How can this be resolved


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SOURCE: Salton Big Chill manual

http://www.pickyourown.org/icecream/Salton_Big_Chill_ice_cream_maker_ICM15_IB.pdf

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SOURCE: Instruction/useres manual for Cuisinart CIM60 Ice Cream Maker

Try this link
http://www.cuisinart.com/manuals/index.php?item_id=423

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SOURCE: ICE-20 Frozen Yogurt/Ice Cream maker

Here is the link to the manual:
http://www.cuisinart.com/share/man/82_man.pdf

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SOURCE: i just need the manual for the rial ice cream maker model gc8101

Here is your manual. Follow the link
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http://kitchen.manualsonline.com/manuals/mfg/rival_1/gc8101.html?s=fpw

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SOURCE: Salton ice cream maker manual

I downloaded a manual for the ICM21, same picture as yours, today, August 2009, from kitchen.manualsonline.com
Click on frozen dessert maker under Member Contributed Manuals.
Click on Salton frozen dessert maker
Scroll down to Comments, get this manual
Click on instructions
Salton ice cream maker pdf
The one there is for the old ICM21 ice cream maker.

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Model manual manuals

You may view the manual at http://www.slashdocs.com/qmwyt/salton-big-chill-ice-cream-maker-icm15-ib.html

Jul 01, 2013 | Salton ICM15 BIG CHILL 1.5 Quart Ice Cream…

1 Answer

Model manual

You may view the owner’s manual at http://www.slashdocs.com/qmwyt/salton-big-chill-ice-cream-maker-icm15-ib.html

Jul 01, 2013 | Salton ICM15 BIG CHILL 1.5 Quart Ice Cream…

2 Answers

I have a Salton Ice Cream maker Mod. IC-4. I need a new Metal Container for it as the coating is wearing off and the ice cream is starting to taste metalic. Do you sell replacements of the metal…

Fixya does not sell replacement ice cream containers.

Feb 09, 2018 | Salton Ice Cream Makers

1 Answer

Need users manual for salton big chill ICM-1

Owner’s Manual for Salton Big Chill model ICM-1 – LINK

Apr 03, 2010 | Salton ICM-21 1.5 Quart Ice Cream Maker

1 Answer

Is the instruction manual still available for the Salton ICM-1 Ice Cream Maker?

I scanned & uploaded the Big Chill ICM-1 here .

Dec 06, 2009 | Salton ICM15 BIG CHILL 1.5 Quart Ice Cream…

1 Answer

Salton Big Chill manual

http://www.pickyourown.org/icecream/Salton_Big_Chill_ice_cream_maker_ICM15_IB.pdf

Mar 08, 2009 | Salton ICM15 BIG CHILL 1.5 Quart Ice Cream…

2 Answers

Freezer disc ruptured

I called the number for Salton in the back of the manual and they answered — don’t know if they can help you get the part but you can try it…800-233-9054 Monday thru Friday 9-5 CST.

Good luck

Aug 23, 2008 | Salton ICM-21 1.5 Quart Ice Cream Maker

1 Answer

Salton model GL14 Ice Cream machine

For all of the above, you will need to contact Salton directly, as they no logner post the info on their website:
3633 Flamingo Road
Miramar, Florida 33027

Phone 954.883.1000

Jul 18, 2008 | Cuisinart ICE-20 Automatic Frozen Yogurt…

1 Answer

Salton ICM- 1

See if you can find it here…

http://www.pickyourown.org/icecreammakermanuals.htm

Apr 27, 2008 | Salton ICM-21 1.5 Quart Ice Cream Maker

3 Answers

Salton ice cream maker manual

I downloaded a manual for the ICM21, same picture as yours, today, August 2009, from kitchen.manualsonline.com
Click on frozen dessert maker under Member Contributed Manuals.
Click on Salton frozen dessert maker
Scroll down to Comments, get this manual
Click on instructions
Salton ice cream maker pdf
The one there is for the old ICM21 ice cream maker.

Jan 16, 2008 | Salton ICM-21 1.5 Quart Ice Cream Maker

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Where can I buy a plastic lid to a Salton Ice Cream machine?

Dec 22, 2017 | Salton Ice Cream Makers

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I need a Freezer disc for my maker. Where can I get one? I called Salton and they just told they were sorry Ice Cream Maker is no longer in production Does any one know where I can get this part? For Big Chill Model# ICM21 A Salton Freezer Disc.

Apr 10, 2017 | Salton Ice Cream Makers

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require a paddle for Salton SIM 26 ice cream maker

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This article is about the classification of Englishes around the world. For Global English or World English, see International English .
International Association for World Englishes

International Association for World Englishes

World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States. The study of World Englishes consists of identifying varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally and analyzing how sociolinguistic histories, multicultural backgrounds and contexts of function influence the use of English in different regions of the world.

The issue of World Englishes was first raised in 1978 to examine concepts of regional Englishes globally. Pragmatic factors such as appropriateness, comprehensibility and interpretability justified the use of English as an international and intra-national language. In 1988, at a Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) conference in Honolulu , Hawaii , the International Committee of the Study of World Englishes (ICWE) was formed. In 1992, the ICWE formally launched the International Association for World Englishes (IAWE) at a conference of “World Englishes Today”, at the University of Illinois , USA. [1] There is now an academic journal devoted to the study of this topic, titled World Englishes. [2]

Currently, there are approximately 75 territories where English is spoken either as a first language (L1) or as an unofficial or institutionalized second language (L2) in fields such as government, law and education. It is difficult to establish the total number of Englishes in the world, as new varieties of English are constantly being developed and discovered. [3]

Contents

  • 1 World English vs. World Englishes vs. Global Englishes
  • 2 Historical context
    • 2.1 History of English
    • 2.2 Global spread of English
  • 3 Classification of Englishes
    • 3.1 Kachru’s Three Circles of English
    • 3.2 Schneider’s Dynamic Model of Postcolonial Englishes
    • 3.3 Other models of classification
      • 3.3.1 Strevens’s world map of English
      • 3.3.2 McArthur’s circle of World English
      • 3.3.3 Görlach’s circle model of English
      • 3.3.4 Modiano’s model of English
  • 4 Variations and varieties
  • 5 The future of World Englishes
    • 5.1 English as the language of ‘others’
    • 5.2 A different world language
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading

World English vs. World Englishes vs. Global Englishes[ edit ]

The notions of World English and World Englishes are far from similar, although the terms are often mistakenly[ citation needed ] used interchangeably. World English refers to the English language as a lingua franca used in business, trade, diplomacy and other spheres of global activity, while World Englishes refers to the different varieties of English and English-based creoles developed in different regions of the world. Alternatively, the term Global Englishes has been used by scholars in the field to emphasise the more recent spread of English due to globalization , which has resulted in increased usage of English as a lingua franca . [4] [5]

Historical context[ edit ]

History of English[ edit ]

Main article: History of the English language

English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought by Germanic invaders into Britain . Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England. Eventually, one of these dialects, Late West Saxon , came to dominate. [6]

The original Old English language was then influenced by two further waves of invasion: the first by speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic language family, who conquered and colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries; the second by the Normans in the 11th century , who spoke Old Norman and ultimately developed a Norman variety called Anglo-Norman . For two centuries after the Norman Conquest, French became the language of everyday life among the upper classes in England. Although the language of the masses remained English, the bilingual character of England in this period was thus formed. [6]

During the Middle English period, France and England experienced a process of separation. This period of conflicting interests and feelings of resentment was later termed the Hundred Years’ War . By the beginning of the 14th century, English had regained universal use and become the principal tongue of all England, but not without having undergone significant change. [6]

During the Renaissance , patriotic feelings regarding English brought about the recognition of English as the national language of England. The language was advocated as acceptable for learned and literary use. With the Great Vowel Shift , the language in this period matured to a standard and differed significantly from the Middle English period, becoming recognizably ” modern “. [7]

By the 18th century , three main forces were driving the direction of the English language: (1) to reduce the language to rule and effect a standard of correct usage; (2) to refine the language by removing supposed defects and introducing certain improvements; and (3) to fix English permanently in the desired form. This desire for system and regularity in the language contrasted with the individualism and spirit of independence characterized by the previous age. [6]

By the 19th century, the expansion of the British Empire , as well as global trade, had led to the spread of English around the world. The rising importance of some of England’s larger colonies and former colonies, such as the rapidly developing United States, enhanced the value of the English varieties spoken in these regions, encouraging the belief, among the local populations, that their distinct varieties of English should be granted equal standing with the standard of Great Britain . [6]

Global spread of English[ edit ]

The First dispersal
English is transported to the ‘new world’

The first diaspora involved relatively large-scale migrations of mother-tongue English speakers from England , Scotland and Ireland predominantly to North America and the Caribbean , Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. Over time, their own English dialects developed into modern American, Canadian, West Indian, South African, Australian, and New Zealand Englishes. In contrast to the English of Great Britain , the varieties spoken in modern North America and Caribbean, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand have been modified in response to the changed and changing sociolinguistic contexts of the migrants, for example being in contact with indigenous Native American , Khoisan and Bantu , Aboriginal or Maori populations in the colonies. [8]

The Second dispersal
English is transported to Asia and Africa

The second diaspora was the result of the colonization of Asia and Africa, which led to the development of ‘ New Englishes ‘, the second-language varieties of English. In colonial Africa , the history of English is distinct between West and East Africa. English in West Africa began with trade. particularly the slave trade . English soon gained official status in what are today Gambia , Sierra Leone , Ghana , Nigeria and Cameroon , and some of the pidgin and creoles which developed from English contact, including Krio (Sierra Leone) and Cameroon Pidgin , have large numbers of speakers now.

As for East Africa , extensive British settlements were established in what are now Kenya , Uganda , Tanzania , Malawi , Zambia and Zimbabwe , where English became a crucial language of the government, education and the law. From the early 1960s, the six countries achieved independence in succession; but English remained the official language and had large numbers of second language speakers in Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi (along with Chewa ).

English was formally introduced to the sub-continent of South Asia (India, Bangladesh , Pakistan , Sri Lanka , Nepal and Bhutan ) during the second half of the eighteenth century. In India, English was given status through the implementation of Macaulay ‘Minute’ of 1835, which proposed the introduction of an English educational system in India. [9] Over time, the process of ‘ Indianisation ‘ led to the development of a distinctive national character of English in the Indian sub-continent.

British influence in South-East Asia and the South Pacific began in the late eighteenth century, involving primarily the territories now known as Singapore , Malaysia and Hong Kong . Papua New Guinea , also a British protectorate , exemplified the English-based pidgin – Tok Pisin .

The Americans came late in South-East Asia but their influence spread like wildfire as their reforms on education in the Philippines progressed in their less than half a century colonization of the islands. English has been taught since the American period and is one of the official languages of the Philippines. Ever since English became the official language, a localized variety gradually emerged – Philippine English . Lately, linguist Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales [10] argued that this variety has in itself more varieties, suggesting that we move towards Philippine Englishes [11] paradigm to progress further in Schneider’s dynamic model after gathering evidences of such happening. [12]

Nowadays, English is also learnt in other countries in neighbouring areas, most notably in Taiwan , Japan and Korea , with the latter two having begun to consider the possibility of making English their official second language. [8]

Classification of Englishes[ edit ]

The spread of English around the world is often discussed in terms of three distinct groups of users, where English is used respectively as: [13]

  1. a native language (ENL); the primary language of the majority population of a country, such as in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia.
  2. a second language (ESL); an additional language for intranational as well as international communication in communities that are multilingual , such as in India, Nigeria , and Singapore . Most of these Englishes developed as a result of imperial expansion that brought the language to various parts of the world.
  3. a foreign language (EFL); used almost exclusively for international communication, such as in Japan.

Kachru’s Three Circles of English[ edit ]

Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English

Braj Kachru’s Three Circles of English.

The most influential model of the spread of English is Braj Kachru ‘s model of World Englishes. In this model the diffusion of English is captured in terms of three Concentric Circles of the language: The Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. [14]

The Inner Circle refers to English as it originally took shape and was spread across the world in the first diaspora . In this transplantation of English, speakers from England carried the language to Australia, New Zealand and North America. The Inner Circle thus represents the traditional historical and sociolinguistic bases of English in regions where it is now used as a primary language: the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, anglophone Canada and South Africa , and some of the Caribbean territories. English is the native language or mother tongue of most people in these countries. The total number of English speakers in the inner circle is as high as 380 million, of whom some 120 million are outside the United States.

The Outer Circle of English was produced by the second diaspora of English, which spread the language through imperial expansion by Great Britain in Asia and Africa . In these regions, English is not the native tongue, but serves as a useful lingua franca between ethnic and language groups. Higher education, the legislature and judiciary , national commerce and so on may all be carried out predominantly in English. This circle includes India , Nigeria , Bangladesh , Pakistan , Malaysia , Tanzania , Kenya , non-Anglophone South Africa , the Philippines (colonized by the US) and others. The total number of English speakers in the outer circle is estimated to range from 150 million to 300 million. [15] Singapore , while in the Outer Circle, may be drifting into the Inner Circle as English becomes more often used as a home language (see Languages of Singapore ), much as Ireland did earlier. Countries where most people speak an English-based creole and retain standard English for official purposes, such as Jamaica and Papua New Guinea , are also in the Outer Circle.

Finally, the Expanding Circle encompasses countries where English plays no historical or governmental role, but where it is nevertheless widely used as a medium of international communication. This includes much of the rest of the world’s population not categorized above, including territories such as China, Russia, Japan, non-Anglophone Europe (especially the Netherlands and Nordic countries ), South Korea , Egypt and Indonesia . The total in this expanding circle is the most difficult to estimate, especially because English may be employed for specific, limited purposes, usually in a business context. The estimates of these users range from 100 million to one billion.

The inner circle (UK, US etc.) is ‘norm-providing’; that means that English language norms are developed in these countries. The outer circle (mainly New Commonwealth countries ) is ‘norm-developing’. The expanding circle (which includes much of the rest of the world) is ‘norm-dependent’, because it relies on the standards set by native speakers in the inner circle. [16]

Schneider’s Dynamic Model of Postcolonial Englishes[ edit ]

Main article: Schneider’s Dynamic Model

Edgar Werner Schneider tries to avoid a purely geographical and historical approach evident in the ‘circles’ models and incorporates sociolinguistic concepts pertaining to acts of identity . [17]
He outlines five characteristic stages in the spread of English:

Phase 1 – Foundation: This is the initial stage of the introduction of English to a new territory over an extended period of time. Two linguistic processes are operative at this stage: (a) language contact between English and indigenous languages ; (b) contact between different dialects of English of the settlers which eventually results in a new stable dialect (see koiné ). At this stage, bilingualism is marginal. A few members of the local populace may play an important role as interpreters, translators and guides. Borrowings are limited to lexical items; with local place names and terms for local fauna and flora being adopted by the English. [18]

Phase 2 – Exonormative stabilization: At this stage, the settler communities tend to stabilize politically under British rule. English increases in prominence and though the colloquial English is a colonial koiné , the speakers look to England for their formal norms. Local vocabulary continues to be adopted. Bilingualism increases amongst the indigenous population through education and increased contacts with English settlers. Knowledge of English becomes an asset, and a new indigenous elite develops. [18]

Phase 3 – Nativisation: According to Schneider, this is the stage at which a transition occurs as the English settler population starts to accept a new identity based on present and local realities, rather than sole allegiance to their ‘mother country’. By this time, the indigenous strand has also stabilized an L2 system that is a synthesis of substrate effects, interlanguage processes and features adopted from the settlers’ koiné English. Neologisms stabilize as English is made to adapt to local sociopolitical and cultural practices. [18]

Phase 4 – Endonormative stabilization: This stage is characterized by the gradual acceptance of local norms , supported by a new locally rooted linguistic self-confidence. By this time political events have made it clear that the settler and indigenous strands are inextricably bound in a sense of nationhood independent of Britain. Acceptance of local English(es) expresses this new identity . National dictionaries are enthusiastically supported, at least for new lexis (and not always for localized grammar). Literary creativity in local English begins to flourish. [19]

Phase 5 – Differentiation: At this stage there is a change in the dynamics of identity as the young nation sees itself as less defined by its differences from the former colonial power as a composite of subgroups defined on regional, social and ethnic lines. Coupled with the simple effects of time in effecting language change (with the aid of social differentiation ) the new English koiné starts to show greater differentiation. [19]

Other models of classification[ edit ]

Strevens’s world map of English[ edit ]

The oldest map of the spread of English is Strevens’s world map of English. His world map, even predating that of Kachru’s three circles, showed that since American English became a separate variety from British English, all subsequent Englishes have had affinities with either one or the other. [20]

McArthur’s circle of World English[ edit ]

McArthur’s “wheel model” has an idealized central variety called “World Standard English,” which is best represented by “written international English.” The next circle is made of regional standards or standards that are emerging. Finally, the outer layer consists of localized varieties which may have similarities with the regional standards or emerging standards.

Although the model is neat, it raises several problems. Firstly, the three different types of English — ENL, ESL and EFL , are conflated in the second circle. Secondly, the multitude of Englishes in Europe are also missing in this layer. Finally, the outside layer includes pidgins , creoles and L2 Englishes. Most scholars would argue that English pidgins and creoles do not belong to one family: rather they have overlapping multiple memberships. [21]

Görlach’s circle model of English[ edit ]

Manfred Görlach’s and McArthur’s models are reasonably similar. Both exclude English varieties in Europe. As Görlach does not include EFLs at all, his model is more consistent, though less comprehensive. Outside the circle are mixed varieties ( pidgins , creoles and mixed languages involving English), which are better categorized as having partial membership. [22]

Modiano’s model of English[ edit ]

In Modiano’s model of English, the center consists of users of English as an International Language, with a core set of features which are comprehensible to the majority of native and competent non-native speakers of English. The second circle consists of features which may become internationally common or may fall into obscurity. Finally, the outer area consists of five groups ( American English , British English , other major varieties, local varieties, foreign varieties) each with features peculiar to their own speech community and which are unlikely to be understood by most members of the other four groups. [23]

Variations and varieties[ edit ]

Main article: List of dialects of the English language

The World Englishes paradigm is not static, and neither are rapidly changing realities of language use worldwide. The use of English in the Outer and Expanding Circle societies (refer to Kachru’s Three Circles of English) continues its rapid spread, while at the same time new patterns of language contact and variety differentiation emerge. The different varieties range from English in the Inner circle societies such as the United States, Canada, South Africa , Australia and New Zealand, to the Outer circle post-colonial societies of Asia and Africa .
The World Englishes initiative, in recognizing and describing the New Englishes of the Caribbean , Africa and Asia , has been partly motivated by a consideration of the local linguistic factors and partly by a consideration of the wider cultural and political contexts of language acquisition and use. This, in turn, has involved the creative rewriting of discourses towards a recognition of pluralism and multiple possibilities for scholarship. The notion of varieties in this context is similarly dynamic, as new contexts, new realities, new discourses, and new varieties continue to emerge. [24]

The terms language and dialect are not easily defined concepts. It is often suggested that languages are autonomous , while dialects are heteronomous . It is also said that dialects, in contrast with languages, are mutually intelligible, though this is not always the case. Dialects are characteristically spoken, do not have a codified form and are used only in certain domains. [25]
In order to avoid the difficult dialect-language distinction, linguists tend to prefer a more neutral term, variety, which covers both concepts and is not clouded by popular usage. This term is generally used when discussing World Englishes.

The future of World Englishes[ edit ]

Two scenarios have been advanced about English’s future status as the major world language : it will ultimately fragment into a large number of mutually unintelligible varieties (in effect, languages ), or it will converge so that differences across groups of speakers are largely eliminated. [8]

English as the language of ‘others’[ edit ]

If English is, numerically speaking, the language of ‘others’, then the center of gravity of the language is almost certain to shift in the direction of the ‘others’. In the words of Widdowson , there is likely to be a paradigm shift from one of language distribution to one of language spread: [26]

When we talk about the spread of English, then, it is not that the conventionally coded forms and meanings are transmitted into different environments and different surroundings, and taken up and used by different groups of people. It is not a matter of the actual language being distributed but of the virtual language being spread and in the process being variously actualized. The distribution of the actual language implies adoption and conformity. The spread of virtual language implies adaptation and nonconformity. The two processes are quite different.

In this new paradigm, English spreads and adapts according to the linguistic and cultural preferences of its users in the Outer and Expanding circles (refer to Kachru’s Three Circles of English). However, if English is genuinely to become the language of ‘others’, then the ‘others’ have to be accorded – or perhaps more likely, accord themselves – at least the same English language rights as those claimed by mother-tongue speakers. [8] [27]

A different world language[ edit ]

The other potential shift in the linguistic center of gravity is that English could lose its international role altogether, or come to share it with a number of equals. Although this would not happen mainly as a result of native-speaker resistance to the spread of non-native speaker Englishes and the consequent abandoning of English by large numbers of non-native speakers, the latter could play a part. [8]

As evidence that English may eventually give way to another language (or languages) as the world’s lingua franca , David Crystal cites Internet data: [28]

When the internet started it was of course 100 percent English because of where it came from, but since the 1980s that status has started to fall away. By 1995, it was down to about 80 per cent present of English on the internet, and the current figures for 2001 are that it is hovering somewhere between 60 percent and 70 percent, with a significant drop likely over the next four or five years.

On the other hand, there are at least 1500 languages present on the internet now and that figure is likely to increase. Nevertheless, Crystal predicts that English will retain its dominant presence.

See also[ edit ]

  • Language shift
  • List of countries by English-speaking population
  • List of macaronic forms of English
  • List of English-based pidgins
  • Standard English
  • Vulgar Latin
  • Euro English

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ International Association of World Englishes [1] , Retrieved on 18 November 2010.
  2. ^ “World Englishes – Wiley Online Library” . onlinelibrary.wiley.com. Retrieved 2018-04-25. 
  3. ^ Crystal, D. (2007). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  4. ^ Galloway, N. & Rose, H. (2015). Introducing Global Englishes. Arbingdon, UK: Routledge
  5. ^ Paradowski, Michał B. “Barbara Seidlhofer: Understanding English as a Lingua Franca: A Complete Introduction to the Theoretical Nature and Practical Implications of English used as a Lingua Franca (Review article)” . 
  6. ^ a b c d e Baugh, A. C. and Cable. T. (1993). A History of the English Language. Routledge.
  7. ^ Stockwell, R. (2002). “How much shifting actually occurred in the historical English vowel shift?”, Minkova, Donka; Stockwell, Robert. Studies in the History of the English Language: A Millennial Perspective. Mouton de Gruyter.
  8. ^ a b c d e Jenkins, Jennifer . (2003). World Englishes: A Resource Book for Students. London and New York: Routledge.
  9. ^ Frances Pritchett. “Minute on Education (1835) by Thomas Babington Macaulay” . Columbia.edu. Retrieved 2010-11-17. 
  10. ^ “Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales | Master of Arts, English Language and Linguistics | National University of Singapore, Singapore | NUS | Department of English Language & Literature | ResearchGate” . ResearchGate. Retrieved 2018-04-25. 
  11. ^ [ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307896694_Philippine_Englishes_A_timely_or_premature_call “a to A��o Social Salesiana em rede… | Browse publications”]. ResearchGate. Retrieved 2018-04-25.  replacement character in |title= at position 7 ( help )
  12. ^ Villanueva, Rey John Castro (2016). The Features of Philippine English across Regions (Thesis). 
  13. ^ Jenkins, Jennifer (2006). World englishes : a resource book for studens (1. edition, 3. reprint ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 14–15. ISBN   0-415-25806-5 . 
  14. ^ Kachru, B. (1992). The Other Tongue: English across cultures. University of Illinois Press.
  15. ^ Kachru, Y. (2006). World Englishes in Asian Contexts. (Larry E. Smith Eds.) Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press
  16. ^ Kachru, B. (1992). World Englishes: approaches, issues and resources. Language Teaching, 25: 1-14. Cambridge UP.
  17. ^ Le Page, R. B. and Tabouret-Keller, A. (1985). Acts of identity: Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  18. ^ a b c Schneider, E. W. (2007). Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge University Press.
  19. ^ a b Mesthrie, Rajend and Bhatt, Rakesh M. (2008). World Englishes: The Study of New Linguistic Varieties. Cambridge University Press.
  20. ^ Strevens, P. (1980). Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  21. ^ McArthur, A. (1987). “The English Languages?” English Today: 11:9-13.
  22. ^ Görlach, M. (1990).Studies in the History of the English Language. Heidlberg: Carl Winter.
  23. ^ Modiano, M. (1999). “Standard English(es) and educational practices for the world’s lingua franca”. English Today: 15/4: 3-13.
  24. ^ Kachru, B. B., Kachru, Y. and Nelson, C. (2009). The Handbook of World Englishes. Wiley-Blackwell.
  25. ^ Melchers, G. and Shaw, P. (2003) World Englishes. The English Language Series. Department of English, Stockholm University, Sweden
  26. ^ Widdowson, H. G. (1997). “EIL, ESL, EFL: Global Issues and Local Interests”. World Englishes, 16: 135–146.
  27. ^ Paradowski, M.B. 2008, Apr. Winds of change in the English language – Air of peril for native speakers? Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language) 2(1), 92–119. http://www.novitasroyal.org/paradowski.pdf However, it remains to be seen whether such a paradigm shift will take place.
  28. ^ Crystal, D. (2001) Language and the Internet. Cambridge UP.

Further reading[ edit ]

  • World Englishes ISSN   0883-2919
  • English World-Wide ISSN   0172-8865
  • English Today ISSN   0266-0784
  • Bolton, Kingsley; Braj B. Kachru (Eds.) (2006). World Englishes: Critical concepts in linguistics. London: Routledge. ISBN   0-415-31506-9
  • International Association of World Englishes

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      un report on north korea crimes against humanity

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      North Korea ‘Crimes Against Humanity’: Damning Report Cites Public Executions And Mass Graves

      Those deemed not worth wasting bullets on were beaten to death.


      • By Sara C Nelson

      North Korea is carrying out public executions on river banks and on school grounds for minor crimes including thefts of corn and rice, a new report says.

      The report, by a Seoul-based non-government group, said the often extra-judicial decisions for public executions are frequently influenced by “bad” family backgrounds or a government campaign to discourage certain behaviours.

      The Transitional Justice Working Group (TJWG) said its report was based on interviews with 375 North Korean defectors from the isolated state over a period of two years.


      TJWG
      Suspected body site groupings by province

      The TJWG report, which was released on Wednesday, also maps the locations of such executions and mass graves. It said executions are carried out in prison camps to incite fear and intimidation among potential escapees, and public executions are also carried out for charges such as stealing copper from factory machines, distributing media from South Korea and prostitution.

      SEE ALSO: North Korea Cannibalism Fears Amid Reports Famine-Stricken Citizens ‘Forced To Dig Up Corpses & Eat Their Children’

      Most of the executions are administered by shooting, though testimonies also showed people can be beaten to death, with one interviewee saying: “Some crimes were considered not worth wasting bullets on.”


      TJWG/ Google Earth

      Government officials were executed on corruption and espionage charges, and bureaucrats from other regions would be made to watch “as a deterrence tactic”, the report said.

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      Defectors from the North have previously testified to having witnessed public executions and rights abuses at detention facilities.

      The TJWG is made up of human rights activists and researchers and is led by Lee Younghwan, who has worked as an advocate for human rights in North Korea.


      – via Getty Images
      Kim Jong Un reacting during a test launch of a ground-to-ground medium long-range strategic ballistic rocket Hwasong-12 in May 

      It receives most of its funding from the US-based National Endowment for Democracy, which in turn is funded by the US Congress.

      The TJWG report aims to document the locations of public killings and mass burials, which it says had not been done previously, to support an international push to hold to account those who commit what it describes as crimes against humanity.

      “The maps and the accompanying testimonies create a picture of the scale of the abuses that have taken place over decades,” the group said.


      TJWG

      North Korea rejects charges of human rights abuses, saying its citizens enjoy protection under the constitution and accuses the United States of being the world’s worst rights violator.

      However, the North has faced an unprecedented push to hold the regime and its leader, Kim Jong Un , accountable for a wide range of rights abuses since a landmark 2014 report by a United Nations commission.

      Related…

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      UN member countries urged the Security Council in 2014 to consider referring North Korea and its leader to the International Criminal Court (ICC) for crimes against humanity, as alleged in a Commission of Inquiry report.

      The commission detailed abuses including large prison camps, systematic torture, starvation and executions comparable to Nazi-era atrocities, and linked the activities to the North’s leadership.

      Harrowing sketches depicting torture, starvation and death in a North Korean prison were published in a UN report into human rights abuses in 2014

      North Korea has rejected that inquiry’s findings and the push to bring the North to a tribunal remains stalled due in part to objections by China and Russia, which hold veto powers at the UN Security Council.

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      Youth Etiquette

      “Manners Matter: Building Character, Confidence and Courtesy”

      Susan’s professional and personal mission is to guide young people to develop character with a focus on respect for others through both etiquette and dance skills. With that goal in mind, we offer the following etiquette programs for youth (Click on the link for more information):

      Youth Etiquette Classes | Brazos Valley Cotillion | Etiquette Summer Camps
      Personalized Etiquette Classes | Teen Dance Classes | College & Job Preparation

      Youth Etiquette Classes - Dr Susan QuiringIn our society, good manners were considered an important part of a child’s upbringing until the 1960s. The 60’s and 70’s ushered in a decline in the popularity of etiquette training. The return to traditional values is bringing about an increasing appreciation of good manners.

      Polished manners and superb social skills will play an essential role in the bright future we envision for our children. Today’s children and teens travel, interview for school and summer jobs and are frequent guests at formal functions and in the homes of friends. Class Act Etiquette will help prepare your child, give him or her confidence to feel comfortable in a variety of situations.

      “My daughter eats, sleeps, and lives your dance classes. She has found herself
      a niche. And she loves being one of your teaching assistants at
      Cotillion
      and Etiquette/Dance Summer Camp. Thanks for all you do for these
      kids. “
      Cindy Broaddus

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      People Are Talking!

      “Whole Family Dances!”
      “As you know our whole family dances together and comes to class regularly because of your infectious personality, sense of humor and positive attitude towards both students and dance. Thank you Susan for helping us improve the quality of our lives.”-Rob Holt

      “My Third Etiquette Dinner!”
      “This was my third etiquette dinner to attend and this one was by far the most practical and applicable to my life today. Thank you for being so open with questions and your excitement was contagious to the rest of us! I look forward to another event hosted by you.”
      Sincerely, Risa Holland

      “Back For More!”

      “Ross and I are back from our wedding and honeymoon and want to sign up for additional dance classes. Boy did the group and private lessons pay off! We danced our hearts out on our wedding day and everyone was impressed! They said we looked like Fred Astair and Ginger Rogers. Thanks again for everything. Send us the newest schedule of classes so we can sign up. We’re ready!”-Jennifer Hardeman Lilleker

      Reserve Susan Now!

      Dr. Susan’s schedule fills up fast. Call now to reserve Susan for your next meeting or event. Call (979) 690-0606

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      Classes Fill Fast!

      Our Etiquette and Dance Classes fill up fast. Don’t be left out. You can either sign up online or you can send check, cash or money order to:
      Susan’s Ballroom Dance
      P.O. Box 11337
      College Station, TX 77842

      If you have any questions about any of her classes or events, you may call Dr. Susan Quiring at (979) 690-0606

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      Susan Quiring, Ph.D. | Ballroom Dance & Etiquette Instructor
      | 979-690-0606 | P.O. Box 11337, College Station, Texas 77842
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      Welcome to
      Suzanne’s School of Dance!

      Suzanne’s School of Dance is a thriving Christian dance studio in the heart of the Bryan, College Station area. In an uplifting environment, we offer our students a variety of classes: Ballet, Pointe, Contemporary, Hip Hop, Modern, Lyrical, Jazz, Tap, and Preschool Dance classes. However, Suzanne’s School of Dance is More Than Just Great Dancing™!

      Our studio staff desires to instill the value of excellence of dance and heart into each of their students. Together, our dancers develop important life skills that will last them through their journey to become the person that God created them to be.

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      Suzanne’s School of Dance
      Suzanne’s School of Dance is a thriving Christian dance studio in the heart of the Bryan, College Station area. In an uplifting environment, we offer our students a variety of classes: Ballet, Pointe, Contemporary, Hip Hop, Modern, Lyrical, Jazz, Tap, and Preschool Dance classes.
      211 Rock Prairie Rd.
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      77845
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      History of Turkey

      Archives and Archiving

      Ottoman Empire

      Empires

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      Where can I access documents, archives of the Ottoman Empire online?

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      2 Answers

      Mouaz Alabsawi

      Mouaz Alabsawi , Yesterday is history. Kung fu Panda.

      You have to know that all of the Ottoman documents, pictures and maps are written in Ottoman Turkish. So at first place you have to aware of it. The Ottoman archive is the largest archive you will find on earth. Most of it is in Istanbul. The library of congress has amazing collection of photographs.

      I’d advice you to contact any Turkish historian, there are plenty of them especially if you’re searching for something documented.

      Thomas Bill

      Thomas Bill

      There are many archive websites, like Archive.org , the Gutenberg Press, the Vatican archives, the London archives, and The Library of Congress.

      Turkish and Hungarian ones would be the second place to look.

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      • 24Aug

        Social Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) – Boon or Bane

        International conference on “Social Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) – Boonor Bane” on 24th August 2018,

      • 29Jul

        Health Camp (29.7.18)

        Free Health Camp was held on 29th July 2018 at Vidhya Sagar Women’s College.

      • 28Jul

        Book Distribution Function – Rya (28.7.18)

        Book Distribution Function in association with Rajasthan Youth Association

      • 27Jul

        Flash Mob – Tribute To Kalam (27.7.18)

        Vidhya Sagar Women’s College paid tribute to our former President Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam

      View All

      Social Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) – Boon or Bane


      International conference on “Social Impact of Internet of Thin gs (IoT) – Boon or Bane” on 24th August 2018, Sponsored by Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), New Delhi, Ministry of Human Resource Development and Organized by School of Business and School of Information Technology.

      Click here to View

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      Health Camp (29.7.18)


      Free Health Camp was held on 29th July 2018 at Vidhya Sagar Women’s College. The camp was organized by NSS, YRC, ROTARACT, CCC, and KARUNA & ENVIRO CLUB in association with Karpaga Vinayaga Institute Of Dental Sciences (KIDS), Mahaveer International & Dr. Agarwal Eye Hospital, Sri Ranga Nursing Home and Apollo Munich Health Insurance & Apollo Hospital. Sri. D. Muthuvadivel, Revenue Divisional Officer, Chengalpattu was the Chief Guest. More than 200 people were beneficiaries through this camp.

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      Book Distribution Function – Rya (28.7.18)


      Book Distribution Function in association with Rajasthan Youth Association was held in Vidhya Sagar Women’s College on 28th July 2018. S. Fazul Rahaman ,Youngest Padma Shri Awardee was the Chief Guest. He was awarded Padma Shri (SEVA)announced for the year 2018- 2019, Tamil Rathna (YUVA RATHNA) given by Governor of Tamil Nadu and Noble Prize (A WORLD PEACE OF EDUCATION) nominated from the Government of India. Vimal Chand Singhvi, Vimal Enterprises was the Presiding Guest. Shri. Shyaam Lunawat, President – RYA, Shri.Goutham Munoth, Chairman – Chengalpattu Extn, Shri. Nithesh Bagmar, Chairman – RYA Book Bank, Sudhir Jain, Secretary – RYA were the Guests of Honour. 300 students were beneficiaries in RYA Book Bank.

      [cycloneslider ]

      ReadMore

      Flash Mob – Tribute To Kalam (27.7.18)


      Vidhya Sagar Women’s College paid tribute to our former President Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam on his 3rd death anniversary. Flash Mob by students was held on 27th July 2018.

      [cycloneslider ]

      ReadMore

      24Aug

      Social Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) – Boon or Bane

      International conference on “Social Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) – Boonor Bane” on 24th August 2018,

      ReadMore

      29Jul

      Health Camp (29.7.18)

      Free Health Camp was held on 29th July 2018 at Vidhya Sagar Women’s College.

      ReadMore

      photo gallery

      • 24 AugSocial Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) – Boon or Bane

        International conference on “Social Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) – Boonor Bane” on 24th August 2018,

      • 29 JulHealth Camp (29.7.18)

        Free Health Camp was held on 29th July 2018 at Vidhya Sagar Women’s College.

      • 28 JulBook Distribution Function – Rya (28.7.18)

        Book Distribution Function in association with Rajasthan Youth Association

      • 27 JulFlash Mob – Tribute To Kalam (27.7.18)

        Vidhya Sagar Women’s College paid tribute to our former President Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam

      • 24 JulInfinithoughts – Mime (24.7.18)

        Infinithoughts Programme was held at Vidhya Sagar Women’s College on 24th July 2018.

      • 20 JulInterior Decor  Design (20.7.18)

        The Department of Home Science- Interior Design  Décor Inauguration programme,

      • 29 JulHealth Camp (29.7.18)

        Free Health Camp was held on 29th July 2018 at Vidhya Sagar Women’s College.

      • 28 JulBook Distribution Function – Rya (28.7.18)

        Book Distribution Function in association with Rajasthan Youth Association

      • 27 JulFlash Mob – Tribute To Kalam (27.7.18)

        Vidhya Sagar Women’s College paid tribute to our former President Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam

      • 24 JulInfinithoughts – Mime (24.7.18)

        Infinithoughts Programme was held at Vidhya Sagar Women’s College on 24th July 2018.

      • 20 JulInterior Decor  Design (20.7.18)

        The Department of Home Science- Interior Design  Décor Inauguration programme,

      • 20 JulDepartment Of Commerce Association (Commet) Inauguration (20.7.18)

        Commerce Association (COMMET) was inaugurated

      • 18 JulYRC Inaugural Function (18.7.18)

        In Vidhya Sagar Women’s College YRC was inaugurated on 18.07.2018.

      • 11 JulSwachh Bharat (11.7 – 18.7.18)

        Swachh Bharat Summer Internship programme was conducted by Vidhya Sagar Women’s College

      contact us

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        • Membrane quiz
        • Mitosis quiz
        • Carbohydrates and lipids quiz 2.3
        • Proteins quiz 2.4
        • Proteins SL Quiz
        • DNA structure SL quiz
        • Respiration SL quiz 2.8
        • Photosynthesis SL Quiz
        • Genes SL quiz 3.1
        • Chromosomes 3.2
        • Meiosis SL quiz
        • Genetics SL quiz
        • Genetic engineering quiz
        • Genetics HL quiz
        • Energy flow in ecosystems quiz 4.2
        • Carbon cycle quiz 4.3
        • Greenhouse effect quiz
        • Population Quiz
        • Evolution – natural selection quiz 5.1 & 5.2
        • Evolution – animal classification 5.3
        • Evolution – cladograms 5.4
        • Human digestion and absorption quiz 6.1
        • Humans – digestion and absorption workout
        • Humans – blood system quiz 6.2
        • Human defence against disease quiz 6.3
        • Human gas exchange quiz 6.4
        • Neurones and synapses quiz 6.5
        • DNA transcription quiz HL 7.2
        • mRNA translation quiz HL 7.3
        • Enzymes & metabolism HL quiz 8.1
        • Photosynthesis HL quiz 8.3
        • Plant structure quiz
        • Plants – transport in xylem 9.1
        • Plants – transport in phloem 9.2
        • Plant growth 9.3
        • Meiosis HL quiz 10.1
        • Gene pools and speciation HL quiz 10.3
        • Defence – monclonal antibodies 11.1
        • Kidney & osmoregulation HL quiz 11.3
        • Sexual reproduction quiz HL 11.4

        Note: Numbered question sets are the most up to date.
        Gradually new quizzes will appear for the gaps, e.g. topic 10.

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